ENTIRELY REPRODUCED UNALTERED FROM EXTERNAL SOURCES
An edited and interpreted version will issue end Q4 2015
On June 7, 2014, the AlFajr Technical Committee (FTC) released an Android version of its ‘Amn AlMujahid (“The Mujahid’s Security”) encryption program. The FTC also announced the launching of its new website – alfajrtaqni.net.
The FTC was established in September 2012. It is comprised of an unknown number of individuals with various technical backgrounds. In December 2013, the FTC launched the first version of its encryption program ‘Amn Al-Mujahid. ‘Amn Al-Mujahid followed a number of other encryption programs that have been deployed by jihadis in recent years.
For a comprehensive review of those, see MEMRI’s Inquiry & Analysis report No. 1086, Al-Qaeda’s Embrace Of Encryption Technology – Part II: 2011-2014, And The Impact Of Edward Snowden, April 25, 2014.
Commenting about its new Android app, the FTC wrote on its website: “Your brothers in the Technical Committee, which belongs to Al-Fajr [media] center, were able to write the ‘Amn Al-Mujahid program.
The ‘Amn Al-Mujahid program is characterized by a strong encryption, and it is the best aid for the brothers since it follows the technological advancements [in the field]. The encryption scheme of the program [can be] easily developed and updated [further] if necessary. That is in addition to the program being able to run on mobile phones.
Add to that the technological experience… of the brothers in the [Al-Fajr] Technical Committee in the field of encryption, and which made this program more secure. The ‘Amn Al-Mujahid program has been provided with a 4096 bit public key [encryption]… making it the most secure system among the other [encryption] algorithms.”
To request a full copy of this MEMRI Jihad and Terrorism Threat Monitor report, send us an email with the report title, number, and date in the subject line, and include your name, title, organization, and official contact info in the body of the email.
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Taliban English Magazine Azan Provides Encryption
The Internet Archive – Based In San Francisco, Used By Online Jihadis To Provide Encryption Lessons For Communicating With AlQaeda
In January 2007, AlQaeda began to use encryption tools for its online activities, particularly for communication efforts, often utilizing security software based on military grade technology. The goal was to hide messages and to protect data transferred via networks, the Internet, mobile phones, e commerce, Bluetooth, and the like. This development was in direct response to various security breaches of its websites over the years by Western government agencies.
The issue of encryption by AlQaeda made news following the killing of Osama bin Laden. U.S. intelligence sources reported that much of the material seized at bin Laden’s compound was encrypted and stored electronically on computers, laptops, hard drives, and storage devices. In 2009, an AlQaeda deputy who was previously Osama bin Laden’s secretary, Nasir AlWuheishi, discussed the use of encryption software. He said, “For our part, we will make contact with anyone who wants to wage jihad with us, and we will guide him to a suitable means to kill the collaborators and the archons of unbelief – even in his bedroom or workplace. Anyone who wants to give support to [Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula’s] operational side and to give tithes [to the organization] can contact us through a special email [set up] for this purpose, using the ‘Mujahideen Secrets’ software and employing the proper security measures…”
In July 2011, MEMRI published a report, AlQaeda’s Embrace of Encryption Technology: 20072011, which covered the period beginning January 1, 2007, when the Global Islamic Media Front (GIMF) announced the imminent release of new computer software, Asrar AlMujahideen (“Mujahideen Secrets”). The promotional material for the software stated that it was “the first Islamic computer program for secure exchange [of information] on the Internet,” and noted that it provided users with “the five best encryption algorithms, and with symmetrical encryption keys (256 bit), asymmetrical encryption keys (2048 bit) and data compression [tools].” Since then, in addition to Asrar Al Mujahideen, GIMF has released Asrar AlDardashah, an encryption plugin for instant messaging (February 2013), and a mobile version of Asrar Al Mujahideen (September 2013).
This report traces the development of AlQaeda’s encryption development efforts from July 2011 to 2014, as well as how the recent NSA leaks by Edward Snowden are impacting AlQaeda communications.
Edward Snowden’s Impact On AlQaeda’s And Other Jihadi Organizations’ Encrypted
Over the past few months, U.S. and other Western political, governmental, and military leaders have noted that AlQaeda has changed its communications following Edward Snowden’s disclosures. Speaking on NBC’s Meet the Press on January 19, 2014, U.S. Rep. Mike Rogers, who chairs the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, discussed how the Snowden episode has led AlQaeda to change its tactics. He stated: “…[Y]ou have to remember, AlQaeda has changed the way they communicate based on this. That puts our soldiers at risk in the field. That’s a real dangerous consequence. Nation states have started to make changes that concern us greatly. We’re going to have to rebuild whole aspects of operations from our Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines that will cost billions and billions of dollars because the information he stole and gave, which we believe is now in the hands of nation states who are doing something with it. There’s no honor in that.”
Speaking on CBS’s Face the Nation on January 19, 2014, Mike Morell, former deputy CIA director and NSA Surveillance Review Group member, said in reference to the Snowden affair: “So even before I left government in August, we were watching the adversaries change their approach as a result of the disclosures. So they moved very quickly to adjust to the [data] collection that we were doing against them. And I don’t know it, but I would imagine my former colleagues are working aggressively to adjust as well.”
A November 7, 2013 New York Times article quoted John Sawers, head of Britain’s secret service MI6, as saying: “The leaks from Snowden have been very damaging, and they’ve put our operations at risk… It’s clear that our adversaries are rubbing their hands with glee. AlQaeda is lapping it up.”
Iain Lobban, director of the U.K.’s Government Communications Headquarters, which provides signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the British government and armed forces told the New York Times that terrorist groups in Afghanistan, South Asia and the Middle East as well as “closer to home” have discussed the Snowden leaks, and that they have assessed “the communications packages they use now and the communication packages they wish to move to… to avoid what they now perceive to be vulnerable communications methods.” The newspaper also quoted Andrew Parker, the head of Britain’s domestic security agency MI5, as saying that the Snowden leaks had caused “enormous damage” to British security, “handing the
Al-Qaeda’s Embrace Of Encryption Technology – Part II: 2011-2014, And The Impact Of Edward Snowden
In fact, many online jihadis have paid attention to what information was revealed by Snowden, in addition to praising him and at the same time issuing warnings for caution about their communications.
Another sign that the Snowden leaks have impacted AlQaeda’s communications was the March 15, 2014 release of Issue XII of AlQaeda’s Englishlanguage magazine Inspire. Since its launch in 2010, Inspire has been known for its efforts to reach out to potential Western recruits. These efforts appear to have been successful; to date, over 20 young people have been arrested on terrorismconnected charges with copies of Inspire in their possession. Shortly after this issue came out, British Metropolitan Police issued a warning that anyone found reading the magazine could face prosecution.
The latest Inspireconnected arrest was on March 17, 2014, when 20yearold Nicholas Teausant of California, who according to the affidavit wanted to bomb the Los Angeles subway system, was taken off an Amtrak train in Washington state at the U.S.Canada border and charged with attempting to provide assistance to Islamic extremists in Syria. He is being accused of exploring ways to support violent extremist activities since October 2013. The affidavit also notes that he had been active on social media and had posted jihadrelated content on his Instagram account. According to the indictment, Teausant frequently referred to Inspire; in one incident he became upset by something in it and texted the informant, “We have to do something now!” 
Issues I through XI of Inspire provided readers with encryption information for securely contacting the magazine. One of Teausant’s Instagram posts includes a photo of his computer screen showing him using the GIMF’s Asrar Al Mujahideen (“Mujahideen Secrets”) encryption software, which Inspire provided to its readers, along with its own encryption key, for readers to communicate with it (this issue, however, announces that AQAP is suspending its email account). In the post, Teausant explains what it is and writes that he can use it to communicate with the Taliban and Inspire: “Lol its Arsar AlMujahideen program it allows you to encrypt messages and safly send them to the taliban repersentitives… also allows me to talk to the creators of ‘Inspire.'”
On his Instagram account, Teausant explains what “Mujahideen Secrets” software is and how he can use it to communicate with the Taliban and Inspire.
This issue of Inspire, the first since the Edward Snowden affair, includes a focus on Internet security. Most significantly, it notes on the first page, in all capital letters: “DUE TO TECHNICAL AND SECURITY REASONS, WE HAVE SUSPENDED OUR EMAIL ADDRESSES TEMPORARILY.” Since, as mentioned, Inspire has always provided email addresses and encryption information for readers wishing to contact it, and, as a major part of its outreach efforts, urged readers to write in, its decision to suspend its email is meaningful.
The cover story, “Shattered: A Story About Change,” by Abu Abdillah Almoravid, who also authored an article in the previous issue of Inspire, focuses on the immoral nature of America and, in another mention of Edward Snowden, how he helped unmask it. It stated: “Obama lied in regard of the NSA program. He asserted it did not spy on its citizens. But every dog has its day, and NSA’s day came when the whistleblower Edward Snowden revealed the No Secret Agency’s dark secrets. The people called for the government to observe the American principles but it did not listen. It abandoned all its privacy policies. This rogue country did not stop at spying on its citizens, it killed them too. Several of its citizens have been targeted in their extra judicial killing program.”
Praise for Snowden can also be found in Issue III of the Englishlanguage online Taliban magazine Azan, released August 26, 2013. An article in it, titled “The Statue of Liberty Is In Reality The Statue Of Slavery In The Early 21st Century,” stated: “Now let’s look at the ‘freedom’ on the other side of the world. The U.S. claims to be the champion of ‘freedom’ in the world while at the same time running huge internal programs that spy on the personal lives of its own people! Edward Snowden, who was an employee at the NSA (National Security Agency), laid bare the U.S. government’s infiltration into the personal email, phone and social media records of its people.”
Also following the Snowden leaks, on August 30, 2013, Mula’ib AlAssinnah, a senior member of the leading jihadi forum Shumoukh AlIslam warned online jihadis not to use Google’s Gmail because Google is part of the National Security Agency (NSA). In his post, titled “What is the Best Free and Most Secure Email [Service]?” AlAssinnah expressed his astonishment that senior jihadi writers as well as media foundations continue to use Gmail. Wondering why no one has yet to warn online jihadis about this “dangerous” issue, Al Assinnah wrote: “[T]his is one aspect where I have recently noticed the brothers to be regressing and lax in their attention to security… I would like to ask the experts what is the best website that offers free and secure email services.” Responding to AlAssinnah’s post, Abu Safiyyah, another senior member of the forum, stated that using the Asrar AlMujahideen (“Mujahideen Secrets”) encryption software in conjunction with identity concealment software represented the key precautionary measures in terms of communications.
AlQaeda Media Wing AlSahab Moves To Using Encryption With IsraelBased Company
On April 9, 2014, AlQaeda’s media wing AlSahab announced an upcoming open interview with Maulana Asim Umar, head of the AlQaeda Shari’a Committee in Pakistan. The announcement said that people could submit questions in Urdu, Arabic, English or Pashto, and included both a Yahoo and a Safemail.net email address to where questions could be sent.
AlFajr Technical Committee Releases New Encryption Program
On December 10, 2013 a new encryption program called ‘Amn AlMujahid (“The Mujahid’s Security”) was released on top jihadi forums. The entity behind the release was the AlFajr Technical Committee (FTC).
The FTC, established in September 2012, aims to develop and improve jihadis’ technical knowledge and capabilities to achieve superiority over the enemy in media and propaganda. Previously, the group had stated that it operates openly and that jihadis can contact it via its accredited accounts on the Al Fida’ and Shumoukh AlIslam jihadi forums.
‘Amn AlMujahid is the latest addition to the list of encryption programs used by jihadis, including for instant messaging and for use with mobile phones. Until the FTC released this program, the leading group developing and releasing encryption programs has been the Global Islamic Media Front (GIMF), whose Asrar AlMujahideen (“Mujahideen Secrets”) was first released in 2007 and has been updated several times since. There were, however, other “not trusted” attempts at encryption programs for jihadis; the use of them is generally warned against and thwarted. For example, two weeks previously, a jihadi forum associated with the Islamic State of Iraq and Al Sham (ISIS) released an encryption program called Asrar AlGhurabaa’. Shortly thereafter, however, the GIMF warned jihadis against using it, calling it “not trusted.” Asrar AlGhurabaa’ was allegedly developed by ISIS members and their supporters.
The ‘Amn AlMujahid program uses publickey cryptography, and is Windows OS based. It has Arabic and English versions.
The AlQaedaaffiliated AlFajr Media Company announced the establishment of its Technical Committee on September 17, 2012, to handle technical issues for AlQaeda’s two trusted forums, AlFida’ and Shumoukh AlIslam. The committee was aimed at working with online jihadis to develop and improve their technical knowledge and capabilities, and to surpassing the enemy in media and propaganda.
The committee, which apparently comprises a cadre of AlFajr technical experts, was to operate overtly. Individuals can contact them via private messages on these forums, or via other means that AlFajr said that it would disclose. The committee also aimed to organize the work of the technical
subsections on these forums, in addition to developing and designing encryption software, inter alia.
The first use of the new ‘Amn AlMujahid encryption software by another online jihadi group was in Issue 53 of the online AlWaqi’ magazine, which was released on December 30, 2013. The magazine provided its public key to those wishing to contact it, using the encryption program (in contrast to the usual use of Asrar AlMujahideen), and also provided a Yahoo email address.
Islamic State Of Iraq And AlSham (ISIS) Launches Asrar AlGhurabaa’ – The First Website For Secure Communication – To Rival Asrar AlMujahideen By GIMF
On November 27, 2013, an announcement was made on Shabakat AlIraq WalSham, a jihadi forum associated with the Islamic State of Iraq and Al Sham (ISIS), of the launch of the Asrar AlGhurabaa’ project. The project, which, according to the announcement, was launched by the ISIS mujahideen and their supporters, facilitates the exchange of secure communications among individuals.
Asrar AlGhurabaa’, which is a play on the name of Asrar AlMujahideen – the GIMF’s flagship encryption program used by AlQaeda affiliates and their supporters – is based on a webpage (asrar006.com) that allows jihadis to encrypt and decrypt messages. The webpage, however, does not provide a means of transmitting those messages, but only of encryption and decryption. Messages must be sent by other means, such as email, instant messaging, and the like.
According to its developers, Asrar AlGhurabaa’ is more accurate, secure, and user friendly than Asrar AlMujahideen, and was conceived with the help of “specialist brothers” who contributed their ideas. It requires no software download or installation, which eliminates one of the major drawbacks of Asrar AlMujahideen – that is, the risk of downloading infected or missing files.
Additionally, Asrar AlGhurabaa’ can be accessed from practically anywhere with an Internet connection, including on mobile phones. This poses yet another security issue for its users, due to the possibility that they could be tracked when visiting the webpage. It is noteworthy that the webpage of Asrar AlGhurabaa’ is accessible via Tor, and its encryption/decryption features function seem to be normal in that environment.
Global Islamic Media Front (GIMF): Don’t Trust Asrar AlGhurabaa’; Releases Asrar AlMujahideen Encryption Software For Mac, Mobiles; Warns Of Fakes
GIMF Warns Against Using Rival Encryption Software Asrar Al Ghurabaa’
The GIMF, creator of Asrar AlMujahideen, released a statement warning jihadis against using Asrar AlGhurabaa’, promising jihadis the means to exchange secure communications with each other. Calling Asrar Al Ghurabaa’ suspicious and saying that its source was not trusted, it further noted that there was no relationship between Asrar AlGhurabaa’ program and GIMF’s own Asrar AlMujahideen. GIMF also warned jihadis against using any encryption program whatsoever that was not released by the AlFajr media center or by the GIMF itself.
The following are details on GIMF’s further development and release of additional encryption software.
Jihadi Forum Post: Tutorial On Installing And Running Asrar Al Mujahideen Encryption Program On Mac OS
On October 19, 2013, a tutorial on how to install and run GIMF’s Asrar Al Mujahideen encryption program on Mac OS was posted on the AlFida’ forum. The tutorial, posted on AlFida’ by one “fady mokhtar,” included stepbystep instructions for installing and running Asrar AlMujahideen on Mac OS using CrossOver, a Microsoft Windows compatibility layer for Mac users.
GIMF Releases Mobile Encryption Program For Secure Communication Between Jihadis
On September 4, 2013, the GIMF released a new encryption program which provides a secure and safe environment for jihadis to exchange text messages, files, and emails via Android and Symbiansupported cellphones.
According to GIMF, some of the special characteristics of its newlyreleased Mobile Encryption Program are its ability to provide the highest level of encryption available to exchange text messages via cellphone and to send encrypted files via email and instant messages by using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Moreover, the program supports digital fingerprint, has the ability to send 400 characterlong SMS messages in Arabic and English, works with most email providers, doesn’t allow access without providing a password, and has the ability to send and receive encrypted messages from Android supported cellphones. This last feature, the statement said, is not available in similar applications available from wellknown companies. GIMF published links to its website which provide detailed instructions on how to download and set up this program.
In return, jihadis have expressed jubilation about the new technology at their disposal and hailed GIMF’s efforts on the matter. One jihadi on the Shumoukh AlIslam forum offered a stepbystep tutorial on installing the software on a user’s cellphone.
Following is the original Englishlanguage announcement from GIMF’s official website regarding the Mobile Encryption Program:
“…In light of the growing need to protect privacy and to escape from the repressive police regulations, your brothers in the Technical Department of the Global Islamic Media Front are pleased to present to the Islamic Ummah in general and the Mujahideen and Ansar of Jihad in particular, the mobile encryption program. This program features asymmetrical encryption, along with the ability to encrypt SMS and files, sending and receiving emails, and receiving messages effectively and efficiently with the use of advanced techniques to maintain security and privacy, both during sending and receiving, or when saving messages. We announce that this program, like all the sites and programs that we develop, is the property of all Muslims…
“The mobile encryption program offers the highest levels of encryption for secure communication through SMS along with the ability to send encrypted files through email. It is the first Islamic encryption program for mobiles and secures communications with the greatest degree of secrecy based on the highest standards reached by cryptography and the engineering of digital communications.
“The program uses the cryptographic algorithm Twofish with cipher block chaining which has the same strength as the algorithm for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). It uses elliptic curve encryption in exchanging keys with the keys encoded to 192bit length. It was necessary to use elliptic curve encryption instead of the base encryption RSA because it is very long, and it’s not possible to store it in SMS nor use it with the Bouncy Castle libraries which use algorithms and methods of encryption with tested
capabilities proven to be effective. This library does permit developers to change the random algorithms to protect against any misuse or abuse.
“The program supports digital fingerprints, so any user can display a digital fingerprint for his public key. Of course, it’s possible to send the fingerprint or publish it to assure recipients of the public key. All encrypted files have a digital fingerprint, and the program uses them when decrypting to verify the file has not been tampered with. This fingerprint can be published to confirm to the recipients that the file is sound. The block chaining cipher mentioned above is very important to encrypt the files because if someone tried to tamper with any digital file, the file becomes corrupt when trying to decrypt it.
“Also among the characteristics of the program is the ability to send SMS of 400 characters in length in Arabic and English. The program works with a number of languages, and it can send encrypted files between two mobiles differing in language settings without problem with the ability to send encrypted files through email with the use of SSL and can add port settings to support SMTP and POP3. The program works with most email hosting providers.
“Furthermore, one cannot access and use the program without entering a password. Storage inside the program is encrypted as is the storing of private addresses in the program, as the addresses found on the mobile can’t be accessed. The program does not allow sending messages that are unencrypted to a recipient who has been added, so if the user did not receive a public key, this means that it’s not possible to encrypt a message, and the program does not allow sending a message unencrypted to protect the user.
“Lastly, among the most important features of the program is the ability to send and receive encrypted messages with Android mobiles and vice versa, and this feature is not available even in the most important similar applications which are programmed by wellknown companies.
“Therefore, the mobile encryption program is the best means for instant communication through SMS and encrypted files through email between the two users. It offers a level of encryption that cannot be undone or broken and can be relied upon to protect the confidentiality of communication…”
GIMF Releases Encryption Software For Instant Messaging
On February 6, 2013, the GIMF released Asrar AlDardashah, an encryption plugin for instant messaging, on the top jihad forums, as well as on its official website (gimfmedia.com). Asrar AlDardashah relies on Asrar AlMujahideen, GIMF’s primary encryption program that the former released back in 2007.
Video tutorials, in Arabic and English, linking to YouTube were provided on the GIMF website. Tutorials were also provided in German, Urdu, Indonesian, Pashtu and Bangla. It is noteworthy that previously, GIMF had relied on various blogs to disseminate its material, such as the nowdefunct gimf1.wordpress.com or gimfmail.blogspot.com, which contained the group’s public key for use in encrypted communication. GIMF’s current website is hosted by the Singaporebased M1 Connect Pte. Ltd. Its Whois information is registered with Network Solutions as follows:
ATTN GIMFMEDIA.COM care of Network Solutions PO Box 459
Drums, PA 18222
Al-Qaeda’s Embrace Of Encryption Technology – Part II: 2011-2014, And The Impact Of Edward Snowden
care of Network Solutions
PO Box 459
Drums, PA 18222
Record expires on 16Apr2013
Record created on 16Apr2012 Database last updated on 16Apr2012
The welcome message states: “Peace be upon you, and Allah’s mercy and blessings. All praise be to Allah, and may prayers and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah, his family, his companions, and those who follow him. Thereafter: This website is the result of the efforts and work of the unknown sincere loyal soldiers – as we consider them, and Allah is their Reckoner – who have worked their hardest in order to present the best things possible to their Ummah. They have done everything they can regardless of the weakness of their capabilities. Despite that, their work was of concern to their enemies and given thanks and prayers by their beloved ones. They ensured their knowledge and work supported their Mujahideen brothers and stood like an impenetrable wall in front of the cyberwar associated with the Crusader military campaign by their enemies. With this, they work under conditions where much work cannot be done. We ask Allah to reward them with the greatest of rewards. This website is the technical arm of the Global Islamic Media Front, and therefore it is a reference for all Muslims who can benefit from it. Without a doubt, it is a small kernel which we will work on to grow larger in the time ahead, Allah the Almighty willing. We ask Muslims upon whom Allah has bestowed the knowledge to know how to promote this website to offer what can benefit their Ummah generally and the Mujahideen particularly. Your brothers in the Global Islamic Media Front Technical Department”
The website also includes contact information, as follows:
GIMF said it had decided to play a leading role in the media battle between the mujahideen and their enemies, while sparing “no effort” in offering support to the mujahideen.
Following is the original English announcement regarding Asrar AlDardashah from the GIMF’s official website:
“…The ummah is suffering from the weakness and shortcomings of the media. This has not been for a short time, but instead a long period. We believe that this weakness was created on purpose by the regimes that rule the lands of the Muslims, for the Islamic world possesses many material capabilities and factors, but, despite that, there is great scientific delay. The reason for this is the intentional plan to keep those tyrants’ control over their oppressed peoples and [to] keep the children of the ummah away from all that would achieve a true renaissance in the Islamic ummah. Therefore, they have not expressed any interest in promoting the media in the required manner.
“The jihadi media – which is the principal arm for speaking on behalf of the mujahideen all over the world – shared in the weakness of the media due to the war that was and is still being exercised against it, whether by the Crusader campaign from the West or the rulers who betray their Islamic peoples. For many of the works of the mujahideen have been lost and did not appear in the right way to the world, especially in the war of the mujahideen against the Soviet Union, Bosnia, and other [enemies on] jihadi front lines.
“With the appearance of the internet, this became an important new means for the mujahideen to be able to express themselves and deliver their word. There is no doubt that they have used it well, despite the lack of capabilities they have, and even with the pursuit, trials, and criminalization by unjust governments. Yet despite all of this, the mujahideen have been victorious in the media war against the West. In March 2006, Eric Clark, the official spokesperson for the American Central Command, acknowledged that the Al Qaeda organization won the media war against the United States, and he clarified that AlQaeda works through the Internet to provide a new technical level and harness it for its use. This represents the driving force of those who mobilize everywhere in order to extol a specific concept for the Islamic world’s opinion, and even the world.
“Therefore, we still say that the youth of the ummah were endowed by Allah with the knowledge to know to support this religion with all the knowledge they were given, and that this support reaches an individual duty that is fulfilled only by doing it. Therefore, every sincere Muslim who wishes to support his ummah in this Crusader war led by America, and in which it is aided by the Islamic world’s rulers, should not delay in offering support to the mujahideen and the available means of communication, praise be to Allah.
“Allah has facilitated in this media battle that the Global Islamic Media Front be the spearhead in this battle, and has resolved to spare no effort in offering
support to the mujahideen. Allah has facilitated in the technical field its designing of the program Asrar AlMujahideen. It is a program for encrypted text conversations, thereby recording a distinct development in jihadi media. In extension of this path, today, they announce the designing of an ‘Islamic Encryption Plugin’ for the encryption of text conversations directly through the Internet through chat programs.
“And, in conclusion of this introduction, we thank all the brothers who programmed this plugin, and [pray] to make their work be in the path of Allah and [that He] grant them a reward for all who helped or benefited this work in the path of Allah. Likewise, we are honored to dedicate this work to the martyrs – with Allah’s permission – of the jihadi media, who wrote pages of light along the journey of the jihadi media, and especially among them the brother Seif AlDin AlKanani, may Allah have mercy on him; and the brother Abu Dujana AlKhorasani, may Allah have mercy on him; and the brother Abu ‘Omar AlPakistani, may Allah have mercy on him. We dedicate this to all of the media foundations and to all the prisoners from the jihadi media, may Allah release them.
“Asrar AlDardashah offers the highest levels of encryption for secure communication through instant messaging. It is the first Islamic encryption plugin which relies upon the Islamic encryption program Asrar AlMujahideen for secure correspondence through networks. It is highly technical in encryption that is above globally existing levels of encryption [and] which secures communications with the greatest degree of secrecy, and is based on the highest standards reached by cryptography and digital telecommunications engineering.
“The Asrar AlDardashah plugin supports most of the languages in the world through the use of Unicode encoding, including Arabic, English, Urdu, Pashto, Bengali, and Indonesian. The plugin is easy and quick to use, and, like its counterpart, the Asrar AlMujahideen program, it uses the technical algorithm RSA for asymmetric encryption, which is based [on] a pair of interrelated keys: a public key allocated for encrypting and a private key used for decrypting. To use the plugin, both of the communicating parties should install and activate the plugin and produce and import the Asrar AlMujahideen private key into the Asrar AlDardashah plugin, which automatically produces the corresponding public key of 2048bitlength for use. When Asrar Al Dardashah is activated by the two parties, the plugin automatically exchanges the public keys and activates RSA encryption. The users can confirm their public keys before the chat [commences], in order to prevent maninthe middle attacks, and [can] confirm that they are speaking with the desired person by comparing their Public Key Fingerprints through another channel.
“The Asrar AlDardashah plugin is small in size and installs in seconds for use with the program Pidgin for instant messaging. Pidgin was chose[n] because it supports many of the protocols and networks for instant messaging, including Yahoo Messenger, Windows Live Messenger, AOL Instant Messenger, Google Talk, and Jabber/XMPP.
“The Asrar alDardashah Plugin has many features: Firstly, it is easy to use and only requires exchanging the Key Fingerprint to confirm the integrity of the each public key. Afterwards, using the plugin is quick and easy. Secondly, Asrar AlDardashah does not require any special technology or expertise. Nor does it require the installation of complex files or long text that can be corrupted. All a user has to do is activate the plugin by clicking on the plugin’s icon to turn on encryption. Then, the plugin automatically encrypts the communication without any other effort on the part of the user.
“Thirdly, the Asrar AlDardashah plugin is trusted for use in secure communication, due to its reliance on the Asrar AlMujahideen encryption program, which, for several years, has been the only reliable and safe program for use in the communications of the mujahideen and the Ansar. Therefore, the Asrar AlDardashah plugin is the most preferred means for secure instant messaging between users. It offers a level of encryption which has not been cracked or broken and can be relied upon entirely to protect the confidentiality of sensitive communication[s].”
GIMF Warns Of Fake Jihadi Encryption Software
On April 24, 2012, the GIMF posted a message on jihadi forums urging its members not to spread rumors about it. AlShabab had been experiencing internal problems, after one of its operatives, the American ‘Omar Hammami, aka Abu Mansour AlAmriki, released a video claiming that elements in the group were trying to have him killed, and after Hassan Dhaher Aweys, head of the Somali opposition group Hizb AlIslami, dissolved his movement’s union with AlShabab.
The following are excerpts:
“We have received many messages about certain issues in Somalia and news reports that had been leaked, regarding which we wish to clarify:
“1) AlShabab AlMujahideen is a jihad movement which has been vouched for by jihad leaders throughout the world. [Moreover, religious] scholars have confirmed the soundness of its doctrine and faith, as reflected by its efforts to implement Allah’s law, by its statements, and by its allegiances and enmities, which conform to Allah’s [directives]. Everyone has testified that it wields power [in Somalia], and that the Muslim people of Somalia are united in their support for it.
“2) A short while ago, [GIMF] announced [the holding of an online] conference with [AlShabab spokesman] sheikh ‘Ali Dheere, may Allah protect him. This conference was open to all questions, and indeed many questions were asked regarding the jihad in Somalia and the situation of the mujahideen and the muhajirun [i.e., people who come from abroad to wage jihad]. We are waiting for AlKataib [AlShabab’s media company] to publish the answers.
“[In the meantime], we forbid the spreading of any false or untrustworthy reports regarding anything to do with Somalia. We advise our brothers [the members of the jihadi forums] not to help the US State Department’s Digital Outreach Team that has been charged with the task of defaming Islam and the mujahideen everywhere.”
GIMF Warns About Fake Download Of “Asrar AlMujahideen” Encryption Software
On December 15, 2011, the jihadi forum Shumoukh AlIslam posted “an important and urgent warning” issued by the GIMF regarding a dangerous download that has been distributed on the website ‘Ushaq AlHour Al Islamiyya. The message explains that the download is described as a new version of the encryption program “Asrar AlMujahideen” (Mujahideen Secrets), but is in fact a Trojan horse, and adds that no new version of this encryption program has been distributed since “Asrar AlMujahideen 2.0” was launched several years ago by the website AlIkhlas AlIslami.
GIMF states further that many intelligence agencies have attempted to create fake copies of the “Asrar AlMujahideen” program, but have not succeeded. Nevertheless, it warns the readers not to rely on the encryption program alone, because “if the enemy cracks it, everything is revealed to him: he can read the encrypted message and even take over the computer and all the files in it, as he wishes.” Therefore, the mujahideen are advised to “use the best and safest systems, as well as a firewall and keyboard encryption software.”
GIMF concludes by warning that no message regarding “Asrar AlMujahideen” should be considered authentic unless it is issued by GIMF itself or by the Al Fajr media company, and promises that new downloads of “Asrar Al Mujahideen” will be released soon.
Syrian AlQaeda Affiliate Jabhat AlNusra Announces New Twitter Account, Gains Over 24,000 Followers Within First Days; Provides Encryption Key
JN first appeared on Twitter in June 2012 under the name @JbhatALnusra; that account had over 76 thousand followers, with its last tweet on April 9, 2013.
In announcing its new Twitter account, JN thanked all of those who supported it and assisted it in disseminating its material. It also urged everyone to show additional support, since, it said, the battle is at its fiercest stage.
In its communique, JN said that its Twitter account will be the only official source for the group’s media and militaryrelated statements, audio and video productions, and official statements. JN also reiterated that its materials are also published via its accredited account on the Shumoukh AlIslam, AlFida’, and Ansar AlMujahideen jihadi forums.
JN said also that it currently has no official website or forum of its own, and it does not have an official Facebook page.
Those previous outlets, said the communique, are used only for releasing JN’s mediarelated work, and will not be accepted as means to making any military, administrative, or other arrangements between JN and other militant groups.
JN also welcomed any mediarelated comments or advice, and provided its Public Key for secure communication with it via Asrar AlMujahideen second edition encryption software, as follows:
#Begin AlEkhlaas Network ASRAR El Moujahedeen V2.0 Public Key 2048 bit
pyHAvxLyDd5+yM1Cge+tLqge61nPtqtFcX04C2dG1DnLoCJLm1 s9UqhU5BvCdz0m1gg1cnAr6je9P8UdookCqISaf1baEK8g4ehN A/1tsWRXtkNBX+tnGsOjmyMZOSjigagpi3Y4/kPAtGldznWcdj ZcGJ9HwCxEnNxQIj730GBpi7gxoYyVpi7EAr/dFHenbrOIU8Qg dQ+YpjOk25DxPfGPq2mbwLB+1gG3bkayifvtK+GNxYn+UWlEF3 akEzZr1XbN8A3C2dpuazlR4qd00/lLmlL4JM+1X9Nh2vLKU3RB OFiTXQFHDZnvHLanRmH5kRNxTGQoOMcFbh1c/3XaQi6f4XHc0I MJQd8I7dnMTawOM+LBRMs55oVtiFs7FlLWwMTPWXhYnuWRw32L 6g/3wwjGDb3VY7B8cAnGqukQN6IVVF7wTM1ourHBN6KFsb5zBC kWYx0Tlg2icA9JT4EynBFn1DQw7YO4hGD7hAo1ReLlqeEWYOOO FplP25CDwcYVsW7h7Aj4iV1GVDCTAwiLPKzwglZYGFsXeYm9y7 SaXopGjeHNS/07hz7P7fmKqA==
#End AlEkhlaas Network ASRAR El Moujahedeen V2.0 Public Key 2048 bit 
Ansar AlMujadideen Arabic Forum (AMAF): Praise For Hacks Against American Websites And Offers Of Hacking Lessons; Lessons On Encryption, Tor; Quotes By AQAP Leader
On January 2013, it was reported that several American websites were hacked
by one Abu Ubayda AlMasri (“Abu Ubayda the Egyptian”). The message he left on the websites, which appear to have been chosen at random, stated that the attack marked the anniversary of the December 30, 2009 suicide bombing by Humam AlBalawi, aka Abu Dujana AlKhurasani, against CIA and Jordanian intelligence personnel near Khost, Afghanistan.
Hacking has been used by projihad and antiAmerican hackers to make political statements, and also has been used to express rivalries amongst Muslims themselves.
AMAF’s Twitter account (@as_ansar), which was opened April 13, 2012 prominently featured next to its official logo a link to a YouTube video in which Abu Hurayrah, an AlQaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) leader, praises online jihadi forums, including AMAF.
Abu Hurayrah stated in the video: “The enemies of the Muslims are taking the true and clear facts from jihadi forums on the Internet.” The video also provides very specific instructions on installing Tor, a program designed to hide the user’s identity online. In fact, the video concludes with a warning not to access the AMAF website without installing Tor.
Screenshot from AMAF instructional video on how to access the main forum; instructions offered to users at the end of the instructional video
PakistanBased Jihadi Organization LashkareTaiba Uses Exclusive SkypeType Application To Plan Terror Attacks
An Indian media report in December 2012 reported on the Pakistanbased jihadi organization LashkareTaiba (LeT) using an exclusive Skypetype application developed by Pakistani military’s InterServices Intelligence (ISI) to plan terror attacks:
“The increasing use of an exclusive and underground VoiceoverInternet Protocol (VoIP) application by suspected terrorists has sent alarm bells ringing among the Indian security establishment which believes it to be a creation of the Pakistani spy agency ISI.
“The clandestine, Skypelike application being used by suspected terrorists is hosted on anonymous servers, hidden behind security walls that operate underground and cannot be intercepted through legal means. ‘The only way to intercept these conversations is to hack them, but they are highly secured due to highgrade encryption. We are finding it difficult to crack it,’ said a security official.
“The recent annual meeting of the Directors General of Police (DGPs) [in New Delhi] was told that this anonymous platform was probably developed by the ISI for communication between terror outfit LashkareTaiba (LeT) cadres and their handlers. The access to platform is restricted to those who have been allotted a login and password, according to officials familiar with the developments.
“Terrorists often communicate over internetbased platforms, intercepting which has been part of antiterror interventions. The 26/11 Mumbai attack [of November 26, 2008] was first major operation where the 10 member LeT attack squad effectively used VoIP to remain in touch with their handlers sitting in Karachi.
“[The Pakistanbacked terror group] Indian Mujahideen’s top operative Yasin Bhatkal, while sitting in Nepal, was using VoIP platforms to contact his associate Riyaz Bhatkal, who is in Karachi, Pakistan. The ISI developed VoIP service has been in use for more than a year. ‘There are software available to develop private and exclusive VoIP service. It is quite possible that the ISI may have tweaked the software to suit its requirements. Such kind of service is always distributed on many servers and kept anonymous. Usually security layers of VPN or virtual private network and proxy tunnels are used as an additional security,’ says Dhruv Soi, director of Torrid Networks, a cyber security company.”
AlQaeda In The Arabian Peninsula (AQAP): Inspire Magazine And Other Publications Utilization of Encryption Technologies
AlQaeda’s Emerging Leader: Nasir AlWuhayshi – Promotes Encryption Technology
August 2013’s unprecedented terror alert and subsequent shutdown of U.S. embassies across the Middle East and Africa were triggered by intercepted communications between AlQaeda leader AlZawahiri and his newly appointed “general manager” and secondincommand, AlQaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) leader Nasir AlWuhayshi, aka Abu Basir, about plans for a major terror attack. The terror plot, as it turned out, was not ordered by Al Zawahiri, as first reported, but was proposed by AlWuhayshi and approved by AlZawahiri.
The Yemenborn AlWuhayshi, leader of the Yemenbased AQAP, won his reputation as a fighter in Afghanistan in the late 1990s, and was personal secretary to, and remained close to, Osama bin Laden. After fleeing to Iran from Tora Bora in 2001, he was arrested there and deported back to Yemen, where he was imprisoned until his escape in 2006 and his reemergence to establish and head AQAP in 2009. He has significant ties to AlZawahiri, and was one of the first leaders to express his approval of him and pledge his loyalty to him as AlQaeda leader following Osama bin Laden’s killing. He has been a major target of the U.S. for years, and has been reported killed a number of times.
At 36, AlWuhayshi represents the next generation of the AlQaeda leadership; he is Internet savvy, and for the past five years has been
actively bringing the philosophy of independent jihad and lone wolf attacks in the West directly to readers of AlQaeda’s Internet forums, as he has openly and actively helped to create and grow AlQaeda’s cyber army on these sites. These efforts have included providing email addresses for potential Western recruits of AlQaeda to contact AlQaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), and even providing encryption codes to be used for the messages.
“Make the explosives into a bomb that you can throw, set off with a timer, explode by remote, or make them into an explosives belt; or you can put them in any electronic device, like a digital recorder in which you hear the tunes of explosions, or in a photo album, a folder, or an envelope. Explode them on any taghut, spy nest, Emir, minister, or Crusader, wherever you find them.
“Likewise, [you should explode them] in the airports of the Western Crusader countries that have taken part in the war against the Muslims, or in their planes, on their residential blocks, or in their subways, and so on. There is always a stratagem [to be found] if you think and rely on Allah, and have no fear of it being discovered after you have hidden it well. By the power of Allah, it cannot be discovered. Recite invocations of Allah for it…”
“For our part, we will make contact with anyone who wants to wage jihad with us, and we will guide him to a suitable means to kill the collaborators and the archons of unbelief – even in his bedroom or workplace.
“Anyone who wants to give support to [AQAP’s] operational side and to give tithes [to the organization] can contact us through a special email [set up] for this purpose, using the ‘Mujahideen Secrets’ [i.e. Asrar AlMujahideen] software and employing the proper security measures…” The article then provides the email address through which AQAP may be contacted and an encryption key, with the advisory that only emails using ‘Mujahideen Secrets’ will be accepted.
AQAP Announces Termination Of Its Online Recruitment Campaign For Security Reasons
On March 3, 2013, AQAP announced that it is discontinuing its “Convoys of Martyrs” campaign for the online recruitment of fighters and suicide bombers. The campaign, launched in June 2012, enabled applicants to contact AQAP using an encryption program and offer themselves as operatives.
The termination announcement was posted on the jihadi forum Shamikh1.info on behalf of AQAP’s military command. It states that the project has been discontinued for security reasons, and instructs members already in contact with AQAP to cease their email communications with it.
Issue X Of ‘Inspire,’ AQAP’s EnglishLanguage Magazine, Provides Encryption Codes For Recruits
Late on February 28, 2013, the jihadi forum AlFida’ released Issue X of the Englishlanguage AlQaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) magazine Inspire.
The first page of the issue features images of all the covers of previous issues, along with the date “Spring 2013” and text reading “More Coming Soon From Inspire.” This page appears to have been intended as a preview.
As in previous issues, there is an emphasis on “lonewolf jihad.”
This issue’s table of contents, on Page 1, notes that the magazine has a new email address: “Note the change in our public key – [email protected] and [email protected] ”
It is noteworthy that since the release of the magazine’s last issue, in May 2012, many of the AQAP leaders who have appeared in previous issues have been killed.
As in every other issue of Inspire, this issue too includes a “How To Communicate With Us” section, on page 59. The page gives the magazine’s new email address, and provides readers with Asrar AlMujahideen 2.0 encryption coding. A newer version of this encryption software was released just weeks ago.
AQAP Releases “Mujahid Pocketbook” For Lone Wolves Living In West, U.S.
On March 2, 2013, the AlMalahem Foundation, the media wing of AlQaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAO) released an exclusive publication titled “Lone Mujahid Pocketbook.” According its cover page, the publication is “a step to step [sic] guide on how to become a successful lone mujahid.” The contents of the guide, which was published on the leading jihadi forum AlFida’, have been gleaned from previous issues of AQAP’s Englishlanguage magazine Inspire, the last issue of which was released two days previously. 
In its 64 pages, the guide provides detailed instructions on how to torch parked vehicles, cause car accidents, start forest fires, destroy buildings, and make bombs using household materials.
One section of the guide, titled “Classical Irahb [sic],” or “Classical Terror,” deals with different types of firearms, offering tips on their effective use, while its “Special Consultancy” section provides, among other things, advice to “lone mujahideen” living in the U.S. on how they can guard themselves against law enforcement authorities while conducting terror operations. Other ideas presented in this section include “guidance for those who are willing to help in the global jihad,” such as doctors, who are encouraged to create lethal poison, including anthrax, and journalists, who are encouraged to exploit their position in order to provide the mujahideen with surveillance reports. The same section also covers how a mujahid can safely communicate with other individuals by using the “Asrar AlMujahideen” encryption program.
AQAP Releases Issues VIII And IX Of Its EnglishLanguage Magazine
Inspire Provides Encryption Code
On May 2, 2012, AQAP released Issues VIII (Fall 2011, 63 pp) and IX, (Winter 2012, 62 pp) of its Englishlanguage online magazine Inspire, on the main jihadi forums Shumoukh AlIslam and AlFida’. These issues are dedicated to U.S.born AlQaeda leader Anwar AlAwlaki and to his protégée and fellow American jihadi Samir Khan (killed September 2011 in Yemen in a U.S. drone strike), including writings and statements by them and by others about them.
As in previous issues, Issues VIII and IX offer readers encryption codes for directly contacting the magazine. They also notify readers, in several places, that the magazine has changed its public encryption code.
Inspire IX Article Provides Encryption Contact Information
The ninth issue of the Englishlanguage magazine Inspire, issued by AlQaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), includes an article titled “The Convoy of Martyrs: Rise Up and Board with Us,” which provides instructions for individuals wishing to carry out lone wolf jihad attacks. The article instructs candidates to send basic information about themselves to AQAP’s “military committee,” which will help them in planning and executing the attack, and will also take responsibility for it and provide media coverage. The article includes a list of conditions that the candidates must meet, a list of possible targets, and instructions for contacting the committee securely by using encrypted emails.
The following is the text of the article:
“Ways of Contact:
“1. All forms of contact will be through [the] Asrar alMujahideen 2 [encryption] program. For more information, check the first issue of the magazine.
“2. Internetrelated security measures should be learnt and use of disguising programs is essential.
“3. Those seeking the individual jihad will be using 2 newlymade emails, the first one will be used to send the requested information, including your Asrar key, and the second email will be attached with your sent information. Second email is used to exit out of the circle of possible infiltrated emails.
“4. Your sent message should be encrypted with the ‘convoy of martyrs’ key, using Asrar alMujahideen 2, and then sent using one of the emails you made to one of the following emails:
“a. [email protected]
“b. [email protected]
“c. [email protected]
“5. You can visit the following jihadi websites, like:
“6. To contact us, here is the convoy of martyrs’ public key:
“#Begin AlEkhlaas Network ASRAR El Moujahedeen V2.0 Public…”
AlShabaab AlMujahideen, AlQaeda’s Somalia Affiliate Provides Encryption Codes
Before Somali AlQaeda affiliate AlShabaab’s Twitter account was closed, it provided encryption
codes for communication. The HSM Twitter account is also using a Yahoo Account, [email protected] , to connect with media and potential new AlShabaab members. It should be mentioned that on January 1, 2011 AlShabaab published a list of the email addresses of its media wing, AlKataib. The statement, released on the Shumukh jihadi forum, said that the email addresses, [email protected] , [email protected] , and [email protected] , were being provided so that anyone could convey an opinion, idea, or advice to the group. The statement also included the encryption key code to be used when corresponding.
Shumoukh AlIslam, The Main AlQaeda Forum Provides Instructions For Accessing It Via Encrypted URL
On November 14, 2013, the Shumoukh AlIslam forum began offering step bystep instructions on accessing the forum via its encrypted URL, as well as on verifying the forum’s digital certificate.
The instructions were packaged under the “dissemination workshop” – a term used on jihadi forums to denote an important topic that jihadis seek to disseminate widely. Those behind the workshop provided an exhaustive list of Twitter and Facebook accounts, in addition to links to various websites, where the workshop was to be published.
Following are some of the technical details of the Shumoukh AlIslam digital security certificate:
Common Name (CN): shamikh.info
Serial Number: 00: AF: FD: 4F: 52: 7D: 68: 14: 95 Issued On: 10/9/2013
Expires On: 10/9/2014
ST [state] = Singapore
Although undeclared, the workshop is probably a response to jihadis’ querying about the digital certificate warning message appearing on their browsers in the past several weeks. The warning might have appeared as a result of expiration or alteration in the Shumoukh AlIslam forum digital certificate. The current digital certificate was issued on October 9, 2013, and is valid for a year from its issuing date.
Taliban English Online Magazine Azan Provides Encryption
In its fifth issue, released March 28, 2014, the Taliban’s Englishlanguage online magazine Azan provided two email accounts and encryption details for contacting it.
In its fourth issue, Azan included an encryptionbased software key to recruit potential jihadis from the Western countries. As in previous issues, the software key, Asrar AlMujahideen, Ver.2, is from the first issue of AQAP’s Inspire magazine.
and [email protected]
An editorial in the magazine states: “In this issue of Azan, we speak directly to our brothers and sisters in the West and remind them of their obligation of Jihad.” A cover story written by a western jihadi and titled “To The Jihadis In The West” urges Muslim youth in America, Canada, Britain, Europe, and Australia to launch attacks in their homelands to cause economic damage and force these countries to change their foreign policies towards Islamic countries.
It adds: “If you would like to contribute to the magazine or to the global jihad against the CrusaderZionist alliance – or if you would like to carry out jihad
The previous two issues of Azan also carried encryptionbased details, calling potential jihadis to get in touch with the Taliban in order to carry out attacks.
Internet Archive Library – Based In San Francisco, Used By Online Jihadis To Provide Encryption Lessons For Communicating With AlQaeda
Among the jihadis using the San Franciscobased Internet Archive, Archive.org, is the Englishlanguage Ansarullah forum. Its featured post for the week of August 812, 2011 was an advertisement from Inspire Magazine for readers to send questions to radical YemeniAmerican Sheikh Anwar AlAwlaki through encrypted messages. The Ansarullah forum post included instructions for readers to send encrypted emails; this extensive
document in English was posted directly on Archive.org by the forum’s administrators.
* Steven Stalinsky is Executive Director of MEMRI; R. Sosnow is Head Editor at MEMRI.
 See MEMRI JTTM report AlQaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Looks to Continue Political Assassinations, Encourages Lone Wolf Bombers in the West, November 5, 2009.
 MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis Report No. 704, AlQaeda’s Embrace Of Encryption Technology: 20072011, July 12, 2011.
 MEMRI JTTM report UPDATED GIMF Releases Encryption Software For Instant Messaging, February 7, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report UPDATED: GIMF Releases Mobile Encryption Program For Secure Communication Between Jihadis, September 4, 2013.
 Face The Nation, January 19, 2014.
 Meet The Press, January 19, 2014.
 The New York Times, November 7, 2013.
 Foxnews, March 24, 2014.
 Abclocal.go.com, March 17, 2014; Huffington Post, March 18, 2014.
Justice.gov/usao/cae/news/docs/2014/2014_03/Teausant%20Complaint%20.pdf, accessed March 25, 2014.
 MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis Series No.1077, In Latest Issue, AlQaeda’s EnglishLanguage Magazine ‘Inspire’ Announces Suspension Of Its Email – Signifying A Major Change In Its Main Purpose Of Outreach To Potential Western Recruits; A General Review Of Issue XII, March 25, 2014.
 MEMRI JTTM report Issue III Of EnglishLanguage Taliban Magazine ‘Azan’ Cites Edward Snowden, Says: ‘The Statute Of Liberty Is In Reality The
Statue Of Slavery In The Early 21st Century’, August 26, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report Online Jihadi Warns Against Using Gmail, September
 SafEmail.net/, accessed April 14, 2014.
 MEMRI JTTM report AlQaeda Affiliated AlFajr Media Company Establishes ‘Technical Committee’ To Develop, Improve Jihadis’ Technical, EncryptionRelated Capabilities, September 19, 2012.
 MEMRI JTTM report UPDATED GIMF Releases Encryprion Software For Instant Messaging, February 7, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report UPDATED: GIMF Releases Mobile Encryption Program For Secure Communications Between Jihadis, September 4, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report GIMF Warns Against Using NewlyReleased Encryption Program, Says It Is ‘Suspicious’ And Its Source Is ‘Not Trusted’, December 5, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report Jihadis Launch New Website For Secure Communication, December 4, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report AlFajr Technical Committee Releases New Encryption Program, December 13, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report AlQaeda Affiliated AlFajr Media Company Establishes ‘Technical Capabilities’ To Develop, Improve Jihadis’ Technical, EncryptionRelated Capabilities, September 19, 2012.
 MEMRI JTTM report Jihadis Launch New Website For Secure Communication, December 4, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report Jihadis Launch New Website For Secure Communication, December 4, 2011.
 MEMRI JTTM report GIMF Warns Against Using NewlyReleased Encryption Program, Says It Is ‘Suspicious’ And Its Source Is ‘Not Trusted’, December 5, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report Jihadi Forum Post: Tutorial On Installing And Running Asrar AlMujahideen Encryption Program On Mac OS, October 22, 2013.
 Shamikh1.info/vb/showthread.php?t=210966, accessed September 7, 2013.
 The original English has been lightly edited for clarity.
 MEMRI JTTM report UPDATED: GIMF Releases Mobile Encryption Program
For Secure Communication Between Jihadis, September 4, 2013.  The original English has been lightly edited for clarity.
 MEMRI JTTM report UPDATED GIMF Releases Encryprion Software For Instant Messaging, February 7, 2013.
 MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 4589, American AlShabab Commander ‘Omar Hammami Says His Life Is Endangered By AlShabab Due To Differences Over ‘Shari’a’ And ‘Strategic’ Matters; AlShabab Issues Denial, Promises to Investigate, March 19, 2012.
 MEMRI JTTM report On Backdrop Of Hammami Affair, GIMF Urges Jihadis Not To Spread Rumors About AlShabab AlMujahideen, April 24, 2012.
 MEMRI JTTM report GIMF Warns About Fake Download Of “Asrar Al Mujahideen” Encryption, December 16, 2011.
 MEMRI JTTM report Jabhat AlNusra Announces New Twitter Account, Receives Over 24,000 Within First Day, August 26, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report Palestinian SalafiJihadi Website Shuts Down after Being Hacked; Warns against Appearance of Fake Websites Using Its Name, November 22, 2010.
 MEMRI JTTM report Hacker Targets American Websites To Mark Anniversary Of CIA Khost Suicide Bombing; ProHamas Hacker Attacks Top SalafiJihadi Forum, January 2, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report Ansar AlMujahideen Arabic Forum Opens Twitter Account, Gives Advice on How to Effectively Disseminate Its Message, May 14, 2012. See also MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis No. 849, HASHTAG #Jihad: Charting JihadiTerrorist Organizations’ Use Of Twitter, June 21, 2012.
 Youtube.com/watch?v=5D4bEL_9LS4; active as of September 4, 2012.
 MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis No. 881, HASHTAG #Jihad Part II: Twitter Usage By AlQaeda And Online Jihadi Affiliated Groups Explodes; Apps Increasingly Used As Tools For Cyber Jihad, September 7, 2012.
 Youtube.com/watch?v=D8Mgpm1PgF4; active September 2, 2012.  Youtube.com/watch?v=D8Mgpm1PgF4; active September 2, 2012.  Youtube.com/watch?v=D8Mgpm1PgF4; active September 2, 2012.  Youtube.com/watch?v=D8Mgpm1PgF4; active September 2, 2012.
 MEMRI JTTM Report Report: PakistanBased Jihadi Organization Lashkar eTaiba Using Exclusive SkypeType Application To Plan Terror Attacks, December 4, 2013.
 Wall Street Journal, August 9, 2013.
 A taghut is an idol or false god; Salafi jihadis most often use the term as
a reference to contemporary rulers of Muslim countries.
 “Mujahideen Secrets” is encryption software that was first released in early 2007 by the Global Islamic Media Front, and has since been updated. See MEMRI JTTM reports GIMF Announces Imminent Release of New Software, January 3, 2007 and AlEkhlas Announces New Version of ‘Mujahideen Secrets’ Software, January 14, 2008.
 MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 5409, AlQaeda’s Emerging Leader: Nasir Al Wuhayshi – An Advocate Of Lone Wolf And WMD Attacks On Planes, Buses And Subways In Western Countries, August 15, 2013.
 MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 4780, AlQaeda In The Arabian Peninsula Expands Call For OneMan Operations Against Western Targets, Translates Article From Last Issue Of English Inspire Magazine Into Arabic, June 8, 2012.
 MEMRI JTTM report AQAP Announces Termination Of Its Online Recruitment Campaign For Security Reasons, March 4, 2013.
 MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis No. 639, New Trend in AlQaeda’s Recruitment Efforts: American Muslims Should Carry the Burden of Jihad in U.S., October 19, 2010.
 MEMRI JTTM report UPDATED GIMF Releases Encryprion Software For Instant Messaging, February 7, 2013.
 MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis No. 943, Issue X Of ‘Inspire,’ AQAP’s English Language Magazine, Includes Further Strategies For LoneWolf Attacks, And A Call To Assassinate President Obama And Other World Leaders A Review, March 2, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report AQAP Releases Issue X Of Its EnglishLanguage Magazine ‘Inspire,’ Calling To Assassinate Top U.S., British, And French Heads Of State And Politicians, February 28, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report AlQaeda’s Embrace of Encryption Technology: 2007 2011, July 12, 2011.
 MEMRI JTTM report AQAP Releases ‘Mujahid Pocketbook For Lone Wolves Living In West, U.S., March 2, 2013.
 For more on AlQaeda’s use of encryption, see MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis No. 704, AlQaeda’s Embrace of Encryption Technology: 20072011, July 12, 2011, .
 The original English has been lightly edited for clarity.
 MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 4689, Inspire IX Article Offers Help In
Carrying Out OneMan Jihad Operations, May 3, 2012.
 MEMRI JTTM Report AlShabab Provides Emails Of Its Media Company,
January 3, 2011.
 MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis No. 772, Somali AlQaeda Affiliate Al Shabaab Tweets Jihad And Martyrdom, December 13, 2011.
 MEMRI JTTM report To Facilitate Access To Top AlQaeda Forum, Jihadis Offer Instructions On Accessing The Forum Via Its Encrypted URL, Verification Of Its Digital Certificate, November 14, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report Issue IV Of EnglishLanguage Azan Magazine Releases EncryptionBased Contact Details From First Issue Of Inspire, December 2, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report Taliban Magazine ‘Azan’ Releasing EncryptionBased Contact Details Originally From ‘Inspire’ Magazine To Recruit Jihadi Youth, June 10, 2013.
 MEMRI JTTM report Issue III Of EnglishLanguage Taliban Magazine ‘Azan’ Publishes EncryptionBased Contact Details To Recruit Potential Jihadis, August 26, 2013.
 MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis No. 704, AlQaeda’s Embrace of Encryption
Technology: 20072011, July 12, 2011.
 MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis No. 724, AlQaeda, Jihadis Infest The San
Francisco, CaliforniaBased ‘Internet Archive’ Library, August 17, 2011.