Travelling in West Africa – Sénégal & the borders with Guinea, The Gambia & Guinea-Bissau

With special thanks to our co-author and expert contributor Mr. Albert Diatta, Owner of Albert Protection. 

Albert Protection is based in Dakar, Sénégal providing privately contracted armed security personnel (PCASP) in the West African region. 

See the Albert Protection Facebook Page for additional details, testimonials and contact information.

All materials copyright © TMG Corporate Services & Albert Protection. All rights reserved. Unauthorized publication, dissemination or re-printing is strictly prohibited without express prior permission from the copyright holder. All queries to



Sénégal – “Pays de la Teranga”

Sénégal is in sub-Saharan Africa. The Atlantic Ocean is to the West, Mali to the East, Mauritania to the North and Guinea and Guinea-Bissau to the South where The Gambia also shares 300 kilometres of borders with Sénégal. The Cap Verde islands are 550 kilometres off the coast. 

Politically, the country is one of the most democratic and stable on the continent and the “Senegalese Model” is often quoted as an example for other African nations who have struggled less successfully with the transition from colonialism and the integration of often diverse ethnic groups into a cohesive nation. 

Sénégal is known as “Pays de la Teranga” – meaning the country of hospitality. It is possible to walk the city streets without fear and there are few “no go” areas in the country. 

The people are friendly and hospitable and welcome foreign visitors with few exceptions. 

However, there are regions where caution is advised such as Casamance. This area has been affected by the activities of an armed separatist movement, the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (MFDC). 

Casamance is the area of Sénégal south of the Gambia and bordering neighbouring Guinea-Bissau to the south. The area includes the Casamance River. 

The region is made up of Basse Casamance and Haute Casamance with the largest city being Ziguinchor. The economy relies largely on rice production and tourism. There are beautiful beaches all along the coastline with Cap Skirring of particular note.

The “Confréries”

Sénégal has a population of fourteen million of which the vast majority (90%+) are Muslims adhering mainly to the Sufi school of thought. Sénégal is however not an Islamic State – it is a democratic republic. Muslim adherents are structured in various brotherhoods (not to be confused with “Muslim Brotherhood (MB)” the movement).

These orders trace their origins variously and include the Xaadir founded in Baghdad during the early middle ages; the Tijaniyyah founded in Fez, Morocco; the Mouride, the richest and most active; and the Layene based at Yoff which is north of Dakar. 

These groups are officially recognized by the state. Elements within a number of these groups oppose state authority and state structures. 

These “elements” are typically led by a Marabout or Muslim religious leader. These groups have formed militias in various parts of Sénégal and exert significant influence on regional politics. One of the leading figures in the militia chain of command is supposedly Sheikh Ahmadou Kara Mbacké.

The Brotherhoods – Geographically 

Broadly speaking the brotherhoods are based regionally as follows:  

  • The Tidjanes base is Tivaouane, a city located in the Thiès Region of Sénégal; 
  • The Mouride are based in Central Sénégal at Touba the holy city of Mouridism and the burial place of its founder, Shaikh Aamadu Bàmba Mbàkke. Next to his tomb lies a large mosque, completed in 1963; 
  • The Niasseyes identify with Kaolack, a town of 172,305 people on the north bank of the Saloum River and the N1 road in Senegal. It is the capital of the Kaolack Region, which borders The Gambia to the south; 
  • The Layene Brotherhood founded by Seydina Limamou Laye are concentrated around the capital, Dakar;
The other brotherhoods similarly have geographically specific power bases. 

Demonstrating the power of the Marabouts & the Brotherhoods in Senegal
(based on the experiences of Glenn Ojeda, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace & World Affairs)

In November 2012 a branch of the Mouride brotherhood known as the Thiantacoun held protests in Dakar demanding the release of their marabout Sheikh Bethio Thioune who had been arrested on suspicion of complicity in the murder of two people in the Thiès region of Western Sénégal

Bus services in the city were cancelled for thirty-six hours, cars were burned, barricades built and security forces were deployed to counter the threat. 

The protests resulted in a cabinet reshuffle and a military officer was appointed as Minister of the Interior. 

Thioune even in his role as a relatively minor figure in the Mouride brotherhood was capable of garnering the type of support amongst his followers that ultimately resulted in the abandonment of his trial and his release to travel to Europe ostensibly to receive medical treatment. 

In another example of the “state within a state” anomaly that the brotherhoods represent – former President Abdoulaye Wade the first Mouride President of Sénégal – was elected in 2000 with the public endorsement of the militant Mouride confréries leadership. Upon his inauguration Wade travelled to Touba – the holy city of Mouridism and the seat of its caliph. 

On arrival Wade and his entourage including the entire cabinet sat on the floor in front of the caliph’s seat and presented themselves as humble disciples. This gesture led to headlines at the time declaring that the “Republic kneels in front of the Mouride caliph.”

The Marabout enjoy Historical Precedence

During the colonial era the French were forced to use the marabout as intermediaries with the populace and it was via these structures that parallel and often usurp the central authority of the state that the fight for independence was organised. The endorsement of religious leaders is a must for individuals who seek positions of power and influence within Senegalese society and is a mandatory checkbox for those seeking advancement in the political hierarchy.

Shia Islam in Sénégal

Sénégal is a majority Sunni Muslim country where the Shia adherents (Shi’ites) are considered to be the most radical Islamists in the country. 

The Shi’ite presence grew in the late 1970’s after the Shah was overthrown in Iran. There are several thousand radical Islamists in Senegal distributed mostly in the southeast of the country in Tambacounda, the Kolda region mainly in the Vélingara Department and centred around a mosque in Dakar. 

The Shi’ites are closely allied with the Lebanese-Syrian Shi’ite community living in Senegal. Their religious leader is CHÉRIF Mohamed ALY AÏDARA. 

The Shi’ite community have close links with Iran who have declared that they will be hostile to any country that assists Saudi Arabia with the conflict in Yemen. This statement has a bearing on the conflicting loyalties of Sénégal‘s Shia and Sunni communities and presents a challenge for the country now that the two main players Iran and Saudi are in open conflict in the proxy war in Yemen. 

Relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran & The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 
(Excerpts from BBC.COM)

During the Wade presidency Iran withdrew its ambassador over an incident involving arms shipments to The Gambia. Relations were normalised recently. 

In May 2015 Sénégal announced that it was sending 2,100 troops to Saudi Arabia to assist as part of the Yemeni military campaign. Sénégal, a majority Sunni Muslim country, is the only non-Arabic country to join the Saudi-led coalition. This though is not the first time that the “jambars” will set foot in the kingdom. 

A much smaller contingent was sent to help “protect the holy sites” of Mecca and to honour “the historic ties between the two countries” 24 years ago. That operation ended tragically with a plane crash that killed 92 Senegalese soldiers.

Senegalese leader Macky Sall is using more or less the same reasons for taking troops to Saudi Arabia used then by former President Abdou Diouf all those years ago. Except that this time, the rejection is much wider.

Saudi Arabia is investing heavily in the government development programme known as Programme Senegal Emergent 2035 (PSE), and the decision to send troops to the kingdom is perceived by many Senegalese as using the blood of the jambars to fund the PSE. 

Senegal has long been a master at maintaining good relations with a variety of different powers. Saudi influence has increased in recent years, as seen in the number of mosques being built. But Senegal also enjoys good relations with Shia Iran, accused of backing the Houthis in Yemen, against the Saudi-led coalition. 

Both the US and former colonial power France also see Sénégal as a close ally against Islamist militant groups in West Africa. Senegal armed forces have a reputation of being among the best trained in Africa. 

Senegalese soldiers are currently deployed in four peacekeeping operations in the continent. In the past, they have been deployed in Haiti and Lebanon. But Yemen is a bloody battlefield, not a peacekeeping operation. And it is not clear whether the Senegalese public is ready to accept heavy casualties in a country as far away as Yemen.

Organized Crime 

Sophisticated organized crime is on the rise in Sénégal but there exists already a long history of drug trafficking, counterfeiting currency, weapons trafficking and gold smuggling. 

The state authorities and many of the Marabout disagree on the extent of organized criminality in the country. But some of the Marabout downplay the problem because of self interest. Recently eight diplomatic passports were granted to the son of a religious leader – a curious grant considering the son’s non involvement with any department of government or any foreign business interests. 

The Situation on Sénégal‘s Borders

Border security in the South is poor in many regions. In 2010, Nigeria intercepted a cargo ship from Iran ostensibly transporting construction materials but the cargo was in fact weapons destined for The Gambia. The worry in Sénégal was that these weapons were to be sold in the bush for purchase by the MFDC rebels. 

The bush makes it difficult to secure the borders between The Gambia, Sénégal and Guinea-Bissau. By contrast in the north of the country borders between the Sénégal and Mali are closely monitored since the death of Abou Zaid the Tuareg rebel leader killed in Mali during Operation Serval. 

There is widespread border banditry in the gold zones particularly Sabodala. Sénégal has supported Military Zone No. 4 with hardware and troops and two companies of 120 men conduct patrols in the ​​Kedougou and Bakel areas. From Bakel it is possible to cross into Mauritania via canoe. 

Photo: Barriers on the roads approaching the border with Guinea. 

Photo: Approaching the checkpoint at Niassa

Photo: Checkpoints on the roads in Oussouye Department, one of the departments located in the Ziguinchor Region. The military conduct ID verification as they hold an extensive database on members of the MFDC. 

Photo: Checkpoint on Bignona Road.  
Photo: Farafény checkpoint in Gambian territory guarded by the police, paratroopers and several members of the Gambian secret service.  
Photo: This is the military camp at Diaroumé in Kolda close to Sédhiou. This area has seen several attacks in the past as it is close to The Gambia. 

Photo: Senegalese army conducting mopping up operations on the Bignona Road. 
Photo: This photo shows a village on the Bignona Road which is almost empty as the people who refused to cooperate with or contribute to the rebels have fled. 

Ahmed Meguini – Exclusive Thalys Arras vidéo à l’intérieur du train

Credit – Ahmed ‪#‎Meguini‬: Exclusive ‪#‎Thalys‬ ‪#‎Arras‬ vidéo à l’intérieur du train avant l’intervention de la police – interior of the train prior to ‪#‎police‬ intervention showing injured passengers & subdued ‪#‎Moroccan‬ gunman Ayoub ‪‪#‎elQahzzani‬

Travelling in South East Asia – The Kingdom of Cambodia & The Socialist Republic of Vietnam


There are plenty of blog posts about Siem Reap and the Angkor Wat temple complex and its undoubted appeal as a tourist destination – this is not one of those posts. This post is a reasonably definitive first hand and unbiased guide to travelling to Phnom Penh in The Kingdom of Cambodia, travelling the NH1 Highway to Bavet via the Mekong Ferry and then crossing into The Socialist Republic of Vietnam at the Bavet-Mocbai border gates which are approximately 50kms from the outskirts of Ho-Chi Minh City – HCMC (formerly Saigon).

Angkor Wat Temple Complex, Siem Reap
(Photo Credit: Unknown)

NH1 Highway – Phnom Penh, Bavet-MocBai, Ho Chi Minh City
(Photo Credit: Google Maps Screen Shot)

Finding What You Want In This Blog Post 

I do not usually provide a table of contents in a blog post but as this is mostly a utilitarian post which people will want specific information from so I have detailed the sections below, so you can jump straight to the bit that you are interested in (navigation is manual). However, the post does follow a structure and can be read top to bottom from a “getting there”, “while in-country” and “getting out of there” context.

Table of Contents

  1. The Kingdom of Cambodia (in Khmer – Kampuchea)
    1. Political Stability & Economy
    2. Rising from a Low Base
    3. Attitude to Tourism 
  2. Phnom Penh in Brief
    1. The Airport 
    2. The Tonlé Sap, Mekong and Bassac Rivers
    3. Gambling & Casinos
  3. The Bavet Region
    1. The Moc-Bai Border Gates
    2. Duty Free Shopping
    3. Casinos & Gambling 
  4. Ho Chi Minh City in Brief
    1. The Airport 
  5. Getting There – Routes from Western Europe & the USA
  6. Airport Tax & VISA Rules & Requirements
    1. Airport Tax (Passenger Service Charges) 
    2. The list of entry points to obtain a Visa

    3. Visa Fees 
    4. Tourist & Business Visas 
    5. Visa Exemption 
    6. Visa Extension 
    7. International Border Crossings & Overland Routes
  7. What you Need to Know to Make the Best of your Visit
    1. The Locals
      1. Ethnic Groups in Cambodia
    2. Customer Service 
    3. A Dollarized Economy
    4. Counterfeit Dollars 
    5. The Weather 
    6. Accommodation & Hotels 
    7. Public Transport 
    8. Driving “In Country”
    9. The Tuk Tuk Phenomenon 
    10. Medical Facilities & Prescription Medicines 
    11. Shopping & Counterfeit Goods
    12. Drinking water 
    13. Eating Out 
    14. Street Food 
      1. Iced Coffee with Milk
      2. Chive Cakes
      3. Beek Skewers
      4. Fried Noodles
      5. Noodle Soup
      6. “Pop-Up” Restaurants 
    15. The Smelliest Fruit in the World – Durian
    16. Socialising & Night Life 
  8. Other Important Stuff 
    1. Law Enforcement
    2. Urban De-Militarisation 
    3. Tourists Shooting Guns
    4. Visit the Mekong Delta 
    5. Random Pictures 
1. The Kingdom of Cambodia 
Cambodia or in Khmer – Kampuchea – officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. With a total landmass of 181,035 square kilometres (69,898 sq mi), it is bordered by Thailand to the northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east, and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest.
With a population of over 14.8 million, Cambodia is the 68th most populous country in the world. The official religion is Theravada Buddhism, which is practiced by around 95% of the Cambodian population. The country minority groups include Vietnamese, Chinese, Chams and 30 various hill tribes.

Paying for Prayer – A Daily Ritual (Phnom Penh – off Monivong Boulevard)
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)
The capital and largest city is Phnom Penh; the political, economic, and cultural center of Cambodia. The kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with Norodom Sihamoni, a monarch chosen by the Royal Throne Council, as head of state. The head of government is Hun Sen, who is currently the longest serving leader in South East Asia and has ruled Cambodia for over 25 years.
1.1 Political Stability
Cambodia has had the same ruling party and leader for 22 years following the first election in 1993. The political environment has been more stable since 1998 following the establishment of a second coalition government. S&P and Moody’s have assigned ratings of B (Stable Outlook) and B2 (Stable Outlook), respectively, to Cambodia. 
Hun Sen is the 34th and current Prime Minister of Cambodia, President of the Cambodian People’s Party (CPP), and Member of Parliament (MP) for Kandal. He has served as Cambodia’s premier for more than 25 years, making him the longest serving head of government of Cambodia and one of the longest serving leaders in the world. 
From 1979 to 1986 and again from 1987 to 1990, Hun Sen served as Cambodia’s foreign minister. His full honorary title is Samdech Akeak Moha Sena Padey Decho Hun Sen (“Lord Prime Minister, Supreme Military Commander Hun Sen”). Born Hun Bunal, he changed his name to Hun Sen in 1972 two years after joining the Khmer Rouge.
Hun Sen is the 34th and current Prime Minister of Cambodia
(Photo Credit: Unknown)

The platform on which the prime minister has built his tenure, say his supporters, is his stewardship of the economy, which is run on markedly free market lines compared to some others in the region. 
1.2 Rising from a Low Base 
According to the IMF, Cambodia is expected to enjoy rapid economic growth over the next five years, driven by the current low base, the government’s healthy balance sheet and the government’s intention to rely more heavily on higher value-adding tourism services to drive economic growth. 
The Vietnam War, followed by the Khmer Rouge regime, had a devastating impact on the Cambodian economy. Despite the strong economic growth after the end of Khmer Rouge in 1978, Cambodia is still one of the poorest countries in Asia, with GDP per capita low at US$814 in 2010.
1.3 Attitude to Tourism 
The Cambodian government considers tourism as one of the priority sectors, after rice exportation, contributing to national socio-economic development. The Cambodian government aims to increase international tourist arrival from 2.5 million in 2010 to 4.5 million in 2015 and 7 million in 2020 via the implementation of the following initiatives.

Currently, majority of the visitor arrival enters the country via land and water transport. Despite direct flight from Phnom Penh to most key Asian cities, including Bangkok, Beijing, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpar, Ho Chi Minh City, Singapore, Shanghai, Taipei, Vientiane and Incheon, half of the visitor arrival is still from land and water transport.

With the improvement in air connectivity and implementation of Visa exemption policy, tourist arrival from planes is expected to increase, which would drive the overall tourist arrival of the country.

2. Phnom Penh in Brief

Phnom Penh is the capital and largest city of Cambodia. Located on the banks of the Mekong River, Phnom Penh has been the national capital since the French colonized Cambodia in the 1860’s, and has grown to become the nation’s centre of economic and industrial activity, as well as the centre of security, politics, economics, cultural heritage, and diplomacy.

Central Market District, Phnom Penh
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

Once known as the “Pearl of Asia”, it was considered one of the most beautiful French-built cities in Indochina. Phnom Penh, along with Siem Reap and Sihanoukville, are significant global and domestic tourist destinations for Cambodia.

The Phnom Penh metropolitan area is home to more than two million of Cambodia’s population of over fourteen million. The city is the wealthiest and most populous city in Cambodia and is home to the country’s political hub.

2.1 The Airport – Phnom Penh International Airport (IATA: PNH, ICAO: VDPP) 

The airport covers a land area of circa 400 hectares. It is located 10 kilometres (5.4 NM) west of Phnom Penh. There are two terminal buildings an international terminal and one for domestic operations. The international terminal has 5 air bridges built in 2003. The airport’s design capacity is 2 million persons per year.

Phnom Penh International Airport
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

2.2 The Tonlé Sap, Mekong and Bassac Rivers

Phnom Penh is situated at the confluence of the Tonlé Sap, Mekong and Bassac rivers.

View of the Tonlé Sap, Mekong and Bassac River Confluence in Phnom Penh 
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

2.3 Gambling & Casino’s

Phnom Penh hosts NagaWorld, Phnom Penh’s only licensed casino.

Vietnamese gamblers make up 38.5 percent of the players, with Chinese citizens accounting for 25.7 percent and Malaysian visitors 20.8 percent.

In Cambodia’s border casinos in towns such as Bavet and Poipet, the majority of the players are Thais and Vietnamese.

Exterior NagaWorld Hotel & Casino, Phnom Penh  
At Night (Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

NagaWorld Hotel & Casino, Phnom Penh
(Photo Credit: Unknown)

Inside NagaWorld Hotel & Casino, Phnom Penh – PHOTOS STRICTLY FORBIDDEN
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

3. The Bavet Region
Bavet is an international border crossing between the Kingdom of Cambodia and Socialist Republic of Vietnam and is located in Svay Rieng province. Its counterpart across the border is Moc Bai, Vietnam. 
Bavet belongs to one of the poorest provinces in Cambodia. The main economic resource of Bavet is its position on NH1 (National Highway 1), connecting Ho Chi Minh City and Phnom Penh. National Highway 1 or National Road No.1 (10001) is one of the national highways in Cambodia and extends 167.10 km (103.83 mi) connecting the capital of Phnom Penh with Bavet on the border with Vietnam. 
Cambodia-Vietnam Border at Bavet & Proximity to Ho Chi Minh City
(Photo Credit: Google Maps Screen Shot)
In 1981, Cambodia opened a newly repaired section of National Highway 1 to the Vietnamese border, the road having suffered damage during the war years. In Phnom Penh the road converges with the National Highway 2 near Monivong Bridge. 
3.1 The Moc-Bai Border Gates
The Moc-Bai Border Gates is the entry point to Vietnam and passport control is in operation. 
View of the Moc-Bai Border Gates from the Cambodian Side 
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)
The Moc-Bai Border Gates 
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)
3.2 Duty Free Shopping
There is a specially designated Duty Free Zone between the Bavet and Moc Bai border posts. The area is being developed as a mass market duty free, leisure and shopping hub.
The Duty Free Zone between Cambodia & Vietnam Border Crossings 
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)
3.3 Casinos & Gambling 
The location also contains multiple casino and gaming establishments. The location removes the need for Cambodians nationals, Vietnamese nationals or tourists to have their passports stamped if they wish to visit the casinos. 
Casino’s on the NH1 at Bavet, Cambodia
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)
4. Ho Chi Minh City – In Brief
Ho Chi Minh City, formerly named Saigon is the largest city in Vietnam. It was once known as Prey Nokor, an important Khmer sea port prior to annexation by the Vietnamese in the 17th century. Under the name Saigon, it was the capital of the French colony of Cochin-china and later of the independent Republic of South Vietnam from 1955–75.

South Vietnam, as an anti-communist republic, fought against the communist North Vietnamese and Viet Cong during the Vietnam War, with aid from the United States of America and countries including Australia, New Zealand and South Korea.

Saigon fell when it was captured by the communists on 30 April 1975. Vietnam was then turned into a communist state with the South overtaken. On 2 July 1976, Saigon merged with the surrounding Gia Định Province and was officially renamed Ho Chi Minh City after Hồ Chí Minh although the name Sài Gòn is still commonly used.

The city center is situated on the banks of the Saigon River, 60 kilometers (37 mi) from the South China Sea and 1,760 kilometers (1,090 mi) south of Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. The metropolitan area, which consists of the Ho Chi Minh City metropolitan area, Thủ Dầu Một, Dĩ An, Biên Hòa and surrounding towns, is populated by more than 9,000,000 people, making it the most populous metropolitan area in Vietnam and the countries of the former French Indochina.

The Greater Ho Chi Minh City Metropolitan Area, a metropolitan area covering most parts of Đông Nam Baộ plus Tiền Giang and Long An provinces has an area of 30,000 square kilometers and a population of over 20 million people.

According to the Mercer Human Resource Consulting, Economist Intelligence Unit and ECA International, Ho Chi Minh City is ranked 132 on the list of world’s most expensive cities for expatriate employees.

4.1 Ho Chi Minh City Airport (SGN) 

Tan Son Nhat International Airport (IATA: SGN, ICAO: VVTS), is the largest airport in Vietnam. It is located 4 mi (6 km) north of the center (District 1) of Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon). The airport operates from two terminal buildings – Domestic Terminal 1 and International Terminal 2. The new international terminal opened in September 2007 with the capacity of 8 to 10 million passengers per year, giving the airport a total capacity of 15-17 million passengers per annum.

Tan Son Nhat International Airport, Vietnam 
(Photo Credit:
5. Getting There – Routes from Western Europe & the USA
If you are not an experienced traveller or dislike long haul flights then there are multiple options of getting to this destination from Europe or the USA – with stop-overs. Prices vary widely based on the usual criteria – travel class, booking in advance, airline preference and so on. Best travel duration is about 18 to 24 hours but can be up to 40/50 hours depending on your selection. Some examples:

Skyscanner Flight Options, Prices & Stopovers
(Photo Credit:

6. Airport Tax & VISA Rules & Requirements
(Visa Information Credit to

For most visitors to the Kingdom, visa are obtainable upon arrival at both Phnom Penh and Siem Reap International Airports in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap. At the land crossing from Thailand, visas are available at Poipet Banteay Meanchey and Cham Yeam (Koh Kong province).

Visitors who enter from Vietnam through Bavet (VN: Moc Bai) or Ka-Om Samnor (VN: Chao Doc) will need to have already obtained their visas prior to their arrival through a Cambodian Embassy or Consulate overseas.

Tourists also can obtain visa through the online E-Visa. Some nationalities are required to get a visa in advance at the Royal Embassy of Kingdom of Cambodia in their country – these countries are Afghanistan, Algeria, Arab Saudi, Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Nigeria.

A passport and visa are required. Tourists and business travellers may purchase a Cambodian visa valid for one month at the airports in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap and borders. Both require a passport valid for at least six (6) months from the expiry date and a recent passport-sized photo.

A departure tax is charged on all domestic and international flights. All charges that apply are listed below for the various scenarios:

6.1 Airport Tax (Passenger Service Charges) 

  • For International Travel Foreigner: Adult US$25 Under 12 years old US$13 Under 2 years old FREE 
  • Cambodian: Adult US$18 Under 12 years old US$10 Under 2 years old FREE 
  • For Domestic Travel Foreigner: Adult US$6 Cambodian: Adult US$5 

6.2 The list of entry points to obtain a Visa

Airports: Phnom Penh International Airport & Siem Reap International Airport

Cambodia-Vietnam border: Bavet International Check Point (Svay Rieng Province); Kha Orm Sam Nor International Check Point (Kandal Province); Koh Rohka International Check Point (Prey Veng Province); Banteay Chakrey International Check Point (Preyveng Province); Tropeang Sre International Check Point (Kratie Province); Prek Chak International Check Point (Kampot Province); Phnom Den International Check Point (Takeo Province); Oyadav International Check Point (Rattankiri Province); Tropieng Phlong International Check Point (Kampong Cham Province);

Cambodia-Thailand border: Cham Yeam International Check Point (Koh Kong Province); Poi Pet International Check Point (Banteay Meanchey Province); Osmach International Check Point (Odor Meanchey Province); Sihanoukville International Check Point (Sihanoukville Province); Choam Sanguam International Check Point (Banteay Meanchey Province); Prum International Check Point (Pailin Province); Doung International Check Point (Battambang Province); Preah Vihear International Check Point (Preah Vihear Province);

Cambodia-Lao border: Dong Krolar International Check Point (Steung Treng Province); Tropieng Kreal International Check Point (Stung Treng Province)

It is required for the visa applicants to submit passport, application forms, a recent passport-style colour photograph, and such other documents as determined by the status of stay.

6.3 Visa Fees

  • Single entry visa fee for tourist (T) (30 days): US$ 30 
  • Single entry visa fee for business (E) (30 days): US$ 35 

6.4 Tourist & Business Visas 

Visitors from countries not under Visa Exemption Agreements must apply for a Tourists (T) or Business (E) visa valid for one month at the point of entry. Visa K can be issued to a Cambodian national entering the Kingdom on a foreign passport. (The applicant has to provide well-documented evidence, such as proof that one’s parents were Cambodian).

6.5 Visa Exemption

The nationals of the Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia do not need a tourist visa and may stay in Cambodia for 21 and 30 days respectively.

6.6 Visa Extension 

The tourist (T) and business (E) visas can be extended at the Immigration Department, National Police. The Diplomatic (A), Official (B) and Courtesy (C) visas can be extended at the Consular Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. A tourist visa can be extended only once for up to one month (single entry). A business visa can be extended for: One month (Single entry).

Three months (Single entry) Six months (Multiple entry) One year (Multiple entry) Overstayers will be fined US$ 5 per day.

6.7 International Border Crossings & Overland Routes
Border Crossings & Overland Routes
(Photo Credit: Google)

7. What you Need to Know to Make the Best of your Visit
7.1 The Locals 
Almost universally friendly – I have always had positive experiences with the people of Cambodia. It is often foreigners in Cambodia that are the problematic ones. 
7.1.1 Ethnic Groups in Cambodia
  • Cham – Descendants of Cham refugees who fled to Cambodia after the fall of Champa. 222,808 (2012 est.) 
  • Chinese – Descendants of Chinese settlers in Cambodia. 695,852 (2012 est.) 
  • Cambodian Hokkien Khmer Khmer Kandal – “Central Khmers” Ethnic Khmers indigenous to Cambodia proper. 
  • Khmer Krom – “Lowland Khmers” Ethnic Khmers indigenous to Southeastern Cambodia and the adjoining Mekong Delta region of Southern Vietnam. The provinces of South Vietnam all bear ancient Khmer names as they were once part of the Khmer Empire, until the 19th century when the French made Cambodia a protectorate. 
  • Khmer Surin – “Surin Khmers” Ethnic Khmer indigenous to Northwestern Cambodia and adjacent areas in Surin, Buriram and Sisaket provinces in Northeast Thailand, in the region known as Isan. These provinces were formerly part of the Khmer Empire but were annexed by Thailand in the 18th century. 
  • Khmer Loeu – “Highland Khmers” Umbrella term used to designate all hilltribes in Cambodia, irrespective of their language family. 
  • Mon–Khmer speakers Kachok Krung – There are three distinct dialects of Krung. All are mutually intelligible. 
  • Krung Brao Kavet Kraol – 2,000 (est.) Mel- 3,100 (est.) 
  • Kuy – A small group of people mostly located in the highlands of Cambodia. 
  • Phnong Tampuan – Ethnic group located in the Northeastern province of Ratanakiri. 
  • Stieng – Often confused with ethnic Degar (Montagnard) Ra’ong Mnong – Ethnic group located on the eastern province of Mondulkiri. 
  • Samre Chong Sa’och Somray Suoy Austronesian speakers Jarai – Mostly located in Vietnam, the Jarai extend into Cambodia’s Ratanakiri Province. 
  • Rhade – The majority of Rhade, or Ê Đê, are located in Vietnam. They share close cultural ties with the Jarai and other tribes. 
  • Tai Thai – 43,000 (est.) Lao – Living mainly in the Ratanakiri Province. 
  • Shan Kula Vietnamese – Live mostly in Phnom Penh where they form a considerable minority and parts of southeastern Cambodia next to the Vietnamese border. 
  • Hmong–Mien – The Miao and Hmong are hill tribes that live in urban and rural areas. 
  • Miao Hmong Yao Tibeto-Burman Burmese – 4,700 (est.) 
  • Japanese – mainly first generation entrepreneurs and investors in Phnom Penh 
  • Koreans – mainly first generation entrepreneurs and investors in Phnom Penh
7.2 Customer Service
Friendly and many in the hospitality industry speak intelligible English. 
7.3 A Dollarized Economy
The official currency is the Cambodian Riel – however most payments are made in US dollars and change will be in US dollars except where change is coinage in which case you will normally receive Riel. 
7.4 Counterfeit Dollars 
Rampant US dollar counterfeiting plagues South East Asia. If your dollar bill is torn in any way, if the serial number is worn or if the note is defaced in any way then it will not be accepted. 
It is not unusual for you to present a USD100 dollar bill for payment for a meal and then have the waiter ask you to take note of the serial number before they take it away and check its authenticity. When they return and decline to accept it because of concerns they have about the note then check the serial number and make sure that it has not been switched. You will then be asked for alternative payment. 
Similarly the Bureaux de Change in country and also in Thailand will only accept pristine notes for conversion to your local currency when you are returning home.  
7.5 The Weather 
(expert commentary courtesy of

Cambodia is blessed with one of Asia’s simpler weather systems and despite having two distinct weather seasons you can travel in Cambodia all-year-round. In general, the entire country is subject to the same weather patterns, mainly due to the relatively uniform altitude and latitude throughout Cambodia.

There are two distinct seasons – dry (October to late April) and wet (May to late September). Within each season there are variations in temperature, with the final few dry months leading up to the wet season (March and April) and the early months of the wet season (May and June) usually being the hottest of the year with temperatures in excess of 35°C at times.

Humidity is at its height during March and April whilst the coolest months of the year tend to between October and December, however this is cool for Cambodia but far from chilly (avg temperatures 24°C – 26°C).

7.5.1 The Dry Season: October – April / Early May

Cambodia’s dry season lasts from October to April, when the dry north-east monsoon arrives, characterised by hot wind blowing across the entire country. Whilst November to January are quite cool (high 20°C’s) by April the weather is scorching making early morning and late afternoon Angkor Temple tours, with a few hours by the hotel pool at lunchtime, the preference for many.

Thanks to the hot weather this is unsurprisingly the season when Cambodia’s tourist numbers peak. In more remote parts, the roads are at their best and journey times are shorter because of this. Kep and Sihanoukville on the south coast are popular during this season as they bask in the brilliant sunshine and sea conditions are very favourable.

7.5.2 The Wet Season: Early / Mid May – October

Cambodia’s wet season comes courtesy of the southwest monsoon and lasts from May to October, bringing with it almost 75% of Cambodia’s annual rainfall. Across Cambodia, throughout much of the rainy season, daytime temperatures average between 25°C and 27°C. The early months of the wet season (May – July) remain very hot with infrequent rainfall usually in the form of short downpours. In the latter months (late July – September) the rains tend becomes more constant and is heavy at times, especially in coastal and rural regions.

Monsoon Downpour, Thunder & Lightning – Plantation Hotel, Phnom Penh 
(Video Credit: Graham Penrose)

Travel in the more remote corners of the country is almost impossible due to the state of the roads and journeys into the north east are inadvisable during the peak wet season because of this. There is also very limited access to Bamboo Island (near Kep) due to high seas. On the upside, travelling in monsoonal Cambodia does have its advantages. The dust is gone and the lush greenery of the countryside returns. Angkor Wat in particular is stunning in the wet season, with moats brimming with water and a severe drop in visitor numbers.

7.6 Accommodation & Hotels 

Plenty of choice catering for all budgets and tastes – in Phnom Penh:

Accommodation Options & Prices
(Photo Credit:

7.7 Public Transport 

There are no state run public transport services. 

Public “Transport”
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

Outside of Urban Centres – Highway Standards
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

7.8 Driving “In Country”

Simple one this – “don’t do it” – driving is not for the faint hearted. Yielding “right of way” translated into local road etiquette means wading into a sea of oncoming mopeds and hoping they stop. Sometimes they do – sometimes they don’t. If you are a meek sort of person you will be trying to make a right turn for several hours if you do not take the plunge and stick your vehicles nose out.

When and if you do try this it is a roll of the dice whether you will end up in a collision. The only way to lessen the hassle here is to drive a vehicle with government plates – not easily sourced.

“Rush hour” starts at 05.00 hours and lasts until 22.00 hours. Where China has bicycles Cambodia has mopeds.


Typical Street Scene – Traffic (Mopeds)
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

On rural roads – where I have been rear ended several times the excuses and reasoning for the collision are generally hilarious if they were not so worrying. On Highway 1 close to the Mekong ferry we slowed our Lexus 4×4 to allow cattle who were blocking the road to be moved out of the way.

While stationery we were rear ended by a Vietnamese registered coach with 90 people on board. The perfectly acceptable explanation that was given by the driver of the bus was that it was not his fault as the brakes on the bus did not work and therefore he could not stop. Seems fair.  


Collision with Vietnamese “Coach” – NH1 Highway
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

The mopeds also act as the work horses for goods haulage and can be seen all over the country clearly heavily overloaded and quite dangerous. The drivers appear to have an uncanny sense of balance on non-windy days.

Heavily Overloaded Vehicles are Commonplace (Mopeds)
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

The moped also acts as a form of mass family transport.

“People Carriers” – Cambodian Version
(Photo Credit: Google Images)

Mini-vans are also frequently seen loaded beyond safe capacity. Stay well clear and never tailgate – loads regularly dislodge. Give these guys a wide berth.

Heavily Overloaded Vehicles are Commonplace (Mini Vans)
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

7.9 The Tuk-Tuk Phenomenon

The most popular form of “taxi”. They come in all shapes and sizes but safety is a concern. No collision protection and no seat belts in most. Cheap and cheerful – always negotiate – there are no meters and no rate cards – USD3 will get you from one end of Phnom Penh to the other during the day.

Tuk-Tuk Types
(Photo Credit: Google Images)

7.10 Medical Facilities & Prescription Medicines 

There are local clinics and hospitals – many medications requiring prescriptions in the West are OTC in Cambodia – but the street stalls selling them trade counterfeit medication with all the attendant risks. Stick to the pharmacies in the large shopping malls.

7.11 Shopping & Counterfeit Goods

Buyer beware – brands are counterfeit in 90% of the cases unless buying at one of the international brands local stores of which there are few.

Street traders will consistently pitch – all their stuff with few exceptions is knock-off. Don’t be tempted.

Also your “change” will more than likely be in counterfeit dollars – adding to the hassle later when you try to use them.

Street Vendors at the Mekong Ferry Terminal
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

7.12 Drinking Water

Do not drink the tap water – ice cubes in your drink may be ok – but why take a chance.

7.13 Eating Out 

The most important part of every meal is rice. In fact, Cambodians greet each other by saying “Nyam bai howie nov?” (“Have you eaten rice yet?”)

Plenty of choice for local dishes – slippery slope after that – plenty of fast food outlets serving chicken and KFC’s on every corner but Cambodian concepts of acceptable poultry bear no resemblance to Western standards.

7.14 Street Food 
(Excerpts from and credit to for elements of this section)

Many visitors believe that the Kingdom’s roadside delicacies consist of little more more than deep-fried tarantulas and stir-fried crickets. Concerns about hygiene also keep some foreigners from indulging.

But the best street food isn’t about bugs–either the edible or intestinal kind–and it’s too good to miss. You just need to choose wisely. The safest street foods are those that are cooked in front of you and served hot, which kills off bacteria.

“Street food has two advantages over food cooked in restaurants: transparency and immediacy. When you eat on the street nothing is hidden; you can judge whether or not the person handling your food, the surface on which it’s prepped and the plate on which it will be served is clean,” said food journalist Robyn Eckhardt, who has written extensively about street food in Asia and Turkey for international publications.

“And because the time from stall to table is just seconds, you can be confident that your food hasn’t languished long enough to collect the odd bacteria.” Here are some of the safest and tastiest dishes that you’ll find on the streets of Cambodia. Although they are usually sold at street-side stands and by roving vendors, you’ll also find them at the food area at Central Market, which has grown-up-sized seats and perhaps slightly higher hygienic standards.

7.14.1 Iced coffee with milk: Perhaps the easiest introduction to street food is its beverages. The thoroughfares of Phnom Penh are lined with coffee shops selling kar-fe toek doh koh toek gok, or iced coffee with sweetened condensed milk. If you’re like me, knowing that the beans are roasted in lard makes the sweet, strong coffee taste that much better. Some choose to have it without the condensed milk, but they underestimate the mental clarity aroused by the tingling of dental cavities caused by the drink’s unabashed treacliness.

7.14.2 Chive cakes: Fried in shallow pans by mobile street vendors, num kachay are small chive cakes, made with glutinous rice flour and served with a sweet, spicy fish sauce. You’ll find similar versions of this dish in Thailand, but the recipe is believed to have originated in China.

7.14.3 Beef skewers: A common afternoon or evening snack in Cambodia, sach ko chomkak are skewers of beef cooked over hot coals. They’re best enjoyed tucked into a crunchy baguette and accompanied by tart green papaya slaw and spicy red chili sauce. Cambodia street food fried noodles Not the most visually appealing, but fried noodles are some of the cheapest, most filling street food in Cambodia.

7.14.4 Fried noodles: Variations of fried noodles abound in Cambodia, but whether they’re made with short, thick rice noodles that resemble worms, soft yellow egg noodles or packaged deep-fried instant ramen noodles, mi char is one of the simplest and most satisfying afternoon snacks. While sellers have many different variations, beef and pork stir-fried with tender greens are the most common. For an added treat, ask for a fried egg on top.

7.14.5 Noodle soup: One of the most popular breakfasts in town, kuy teav is a noodle soup made from pork or beef bones and rice vermicelli and topped with fried shallots, green onions and bean sprouts. Fish balls and pork are usually added, although you’ll sometimes find rare-beef kuy teav as well. But don’t dare call it pho! Many Cambodians believe that the dish originated in Kampuchea Krom–the area of Southern Vietnam that was once part of the Khmer Empire–and that the famous Vietnamese soup came second. A delicious Phnom Penh speciality version of the soup, kuy teav Phnom Penh, featuring blood, liver, intestines and tongue, is not for the faint of heart (or squeamish expats).

7.14.6 “Pop-Up” Restaurants

These exist on the footpath / sidewalk and are common place. Street stalls line the streets.

Not for me but if it is to your liking – go for it – knock yourself out – you probably will. My Simple Rule – DO NOT EAT IT.

Street Food Samples
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)
7.15 The Smelliest Fruit in the World – Durian

Worth a quick mention is durian whose name is derived from the Malay-Indonesian languages word for duri or “spike”, a reference to the numerous spike protuberances of the fruit. There are 30 recognised Durio species, at least nine of which produce edible fruit.

It is regarded by many people in southeast Asia as the “king of fruits”, the durian is distinctive for its large size, strong odour, and formidable thorn-covered husk.

No Guns : No Goats : No Smoking : No Durian : No Drinks : No Dogs
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

The fruit can grow as large as 30 centimetres (12 in) long and 15 centimetres (6 in) in diameter, and it typically weighs one to three kilograms (2 to 7 lb). Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the colour of its husk green to brown, and its flesh pale yellow to red, depending on the species.
It is common to see these signs in Hotels & public places which gives you and idea of how offensive the odour of this fruit is to many people.

7.16 Socialising & Night Life 

Surprisingly, the nightlife is good fun but PP is not bangkok – still it offers a selection of dance clubs, sports bars, neighbourhood pubs, karaoke, upscale clubs and more.

Bars and clubs are scattered across the town but as the city is fairly compact it’s never more than a five or ten minute ride between places, usually less. And there are several little clusters of bars and nightspots around town allowing you to hop easily from one to the next.

There is no centralized red light district in Phnom Penh, but the area around Street 130, Street 136 and Street 51 is where the majority of bar girls can be found, at any time of the day or night. Most of the ‘bars’ are little more than brothels with beer.

Pimps shuttling their workers to clients – these guys will shadow your Tuk-Tuk and try to “negotiate” a price while dodging traffic

                                                                       (Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

Popular spots if that is your thing are: Catch 22 B, Island Bar, Sharky Bar, Martini Pub, Matilda Bar, 69 Bar & Mr. Butterfly Bar.

Best nightclubs are: D.R Bar Night Club/Discotheque Dance club, open into the very late evening. DJs every night playing hip-hop, rap, funk, trance, house and R&B. Attracting a young local crowd as well as tourists and expatriate. Full bar with beer, spirits and cocktails.. #40, Street 214, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. 7:30PM – 4:00AM Tel: 011-337327 and Heart of Darkness Bar.

8. Other Important Stuff

8.1 Law Enforcement
Do not get into trouble in Cambodia – the experience of spending a few days in custody will more than likely far outweigh what you may or may not have done.

Rural Police Station (Eastern Cambodia) & Law Enforcement Officers

                                                                       (Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

8.2 Urban De-Militarisation 

It is illegal to carry a firearm within 30kms of an urban area. 
8.3 Tourists Shooting Guns
It is illegal – blowing up cows with bazookas is not acceptable and it is illegal and you will be prosecuted. Tuk-tuk drivers will offer you this and the opportunity to lob some rounds from heavy guns across a rural field – do not take their offer.

You will also be offered “special” deals at tattoo parlours. Wait until you get home. Although personally I have had tattoos done in SEA but with people I knew and who were highly recommended.

8.4 Visit the Mekong Delta 

The Mekong

                                                                       (Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

8.5 Random Pictures

Jungle, Sunset on the Mekong & Temple Gates (they are everywhere)
                                                                       (Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

Finally here is a picture of a very cute and very small dog I met while hiking in Poipet. He was not impressed – clearly.

Man’s Best Friend – In a Bad Mood
(Photo Credit: Graham Penrose)

Islamic State assault strategy, sleeper cells & unit structure (Mosul & Tikrit)

The following simple strategy has been used effectively in Iraq over the last 12 months by Islamic State when attacking urban targets.

1. Several small IS units consisting of 10-15 men armed with RP7 and PKP weaponry initiate the attack against several pre-chosen and well recce’d soft points – simultaneously;

2. These agile units are supported by SUV trucks with heavy guns;

3. 60 to 90 minutes after the commencement of the assault the IS units fall back suddenly in an attempt to draw the opposing units from their positions;

4. Pre-deployed and well supported mortar groups and pre-positioned individuals with RPG’s are then employed if the opposing units leave their positions in pursuit of the “withdrawing” IS units;

5. Russian trained snipers, most of whom are ex-Iraqi army (under Saddam Hussein) or former special forces, are positioned on all approaching corridors to the urban targets;

6. The IS sniper units are mainly based in the Al Anbar desert region and the areas around Mosul. Many of the IS snipers have also trained in Yemen and are highly disciplined staying in position for days using IV feeders and many wear explosive vests;

7. The approaching corridors to the target are pre-prepared with IS vehicles and 60 to 90 minutes after the first “withdrawal”, suicide bombers and booby trapped vehicles and explosive laden trucks are driven toward any units that have followed the “withdrawal” while others are driven directly at pre-determined targets;

8. Suicide bombers “playing possum” wait for opposing units to approach and detonate when signalled to do so by a spotter – for maximum effect;

9. On the first day of the attack on Mosul, IS commenced the assault with a massive C4 laden truck bomb while employing multiple simultaneous ambushes;

10. Most of the IS suicide bombers are inexperienced foreign jihadists – typically young Europeans with no previous military experience and others from Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Algeria. Chechen jihadists are preferred for the post-assault clean up (IS lingo for atrocities). For some bizarre reason most Irish jihadists are selected for sniper units begging the question: where did they get their experience from? and why were they allowed enter Europe if they have clearly been involved in Al-Qaeda or other training camps prior to their arrival?;

11. This simple but effective strategy was first proposed and employed by high ranking ex Iraqi army officers who assisted the effort with IS sleeper cells in Mosul and Tikrit who were called into action once the assault began.


Hippotherapy for Wounded Warrior Richard Jansen

I never endorse fund-raising campaigns – however, this is a ‪#‎noble‬ and worthwhile cause (like many ‪#‎gofundme‬ campaigns I am sure) – but in this case there is a ‪#‎personal‬ connection and there have been and continue to be tangible ‪#‎benefits‬ for Mr. Jansen over the last few weeks since the effort commenced ‪#‎Horses‬ ‪#‎Therapeutic‬ ‪#‎Injured‬ ‪#‎Warrior‬ ‪#‎WoundedWarrior‬ ‪#‎Rojava‬ ‪#‎YPG‬ ‪#‎Volunteer‬ ‪#‎Kurdistan‬ ‪#‎RichardJansen‬

Help Richard Jansen – Wounded Warrior

Richard Jansen is a young ‪#‎Dutchman‬ who suffered critical injuries on the front line battling ‪#‎ISIS‬. He was hit by an ‪#‎RPG‬ and still has a piece of shrapnel stuck in his brain which causes the paralysis in his left arm and leg.

He is responding greatly to being around horses and being outside. His first riding lesson on a 13-year old mare was amazing. He laughed for the first time in 4 months! He felt proud of being able to do something completely without any help, except for the help of “Leen” the willing mare, who listened to his body and soul amazingly!

We would love to give Richard his self-confidence, and his power back! ‪#‎Hippotherapy‬ works not only on his soul but also on strengthening his muscles.

Please help us to keep him in the saddle and out of that wheelchair!

Help Richard Jansen